2Contents 1.Climate 2.What is climate change? 3.Causes of climate change4.Effects of climate change5.Facts on climate change6.How to control climate change?7.conclusion
3ClimateWeather conditions observed over a long period of time for a given area.There can be variations in climate from year to year, or one decade to another, one century to another, or any longer time scale.
4What is climate change ???1. Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years.2. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average (e.g., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth.
5Causes of climate change 1. Forcing Mechanism-It is the process which causes the changes in climatic condition of a place or a region .Forcing mechanisms are of two types-a) Internalb)External2. Green House Effect
6Internal forcing mechanisms Natural changes in the components of earth's climate system and their interactions are the cause of internal climate variability, or "internal forcing”. For e.g. ocean variability.
7External forcing mechanisms Climatic changes due to external forces such as human activities is known as external forcing mechanisms.For e.g. increase in CO2 levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere) and cement manufacture.
8Greenhouse effectThe greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.
9Effects of climate change Melting of GlacierRise in Global temperature (Global warming)Change in landmarks (Continents)On BiodiversityChange in Human beingsShifting of sea level
11The causes of glacier melting 1.Global Warming2.Pollution3.Industrial revolution4.Burning of fossil fuels, coal and oil5.Deforestation
12Global warming1.Global warming is the continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth's oceans and atmosphere.2. Global warming is caused by human activities, especially those that increase concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.
14Effects of climate change on continents North America: Decreasing snow pack in the western mountains; 5-20 percent increase in yields of rain-fed agriculture in some regions; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities.
15South America: Gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia; risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many tropical areas; significant changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.
16EuropeMore frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise; glacial retreat in mountainous areas; reduced snow cover; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe.
17Africa:By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress; yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent in some regions.
18Asia: Freshwater availability projected to decrease in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia by the 2050s; coastal areas will be at risk due to increased flooding; death rate from disease associated with floods and droughts expected to rise in some regions.
27Reduced crop yields in many tropical developing regions, where food security is already a problem .
28How to control climate change ? Start afforestation and stop deforestation.Stop using products which releases CFC to stop global warming and ozone depletion.Use CNG instead of petrol and diesel.Use CNG instead of burning coal, wood and fossil fuels.Start cycling or walking to short distances.Use carpool or common transport system.
29Recycle your organic waste . Choose products that come with little packaging and buy refills . Re-use paper!When the time comes to change your car battery, recycle your old one.Stop using plastic bags instead use cloth or paper bags.Encourage to use electricity generated from windmill and solar energy.Follow three ‘R’ principle-ReduceReuseRecycle
32ConclusionWe have seen the ill effects of climate changes on human beings, plants , animals and on our Mother Earth. Therefore, we must take an oath today to take all precautionary measures in all respect to protect our Mother Earth .
33Made by :- Jyotsnamayee Ram STD-IX DIV-BD.A.V PUBLIC SCHOOL, NEWPANVEL