4 ExerciseWhat are the environmental impacts of road transport?
5 Spray Diagram Noise Emissions Energy Land use Wastes Resources CO2NOxCONoiseEmissionsVOCsEnergyEnvironmentalAspects ofRoad transportParticulatesOzoneTyres(Rubber)Land useWastesResourcesManufactureOilCar (Scrap)UseOilRubberPlasticSteelWater / land pollutionOther chemicalsOther metals
6 Life Cycle Assessment Manufacture Use Disposal Examines environmental impacts which occur“from cradle to grave”
7 Life Cycle Assessment - Petrol Extraction of oilTransport of oilRefiningTransportUse
8 CalculationA car weighs 1600 kg. The driver weighs 80 kg. What is its kinetic energy when driven at 90 km hr –1?
9 Answer Kinetic energy = 0.5 m v2 Where m = mass (kg) andv = velocity (m/s)First convert velocity in km/hr to m/sDivide by no. of seconds in 1 hour (3600)Multiply by no. of metres in a km (1000)So 90 km/hr = 90 x 1000 = 25 m/s
10 Answer (continued) Total mass = 1600 kg + 80 kg = 1680 kg So kinetic energy = 0.5 x 1680 x = J = 5.25 x 105 J, or = 525 kJ
11 Exercise I traveled to Chester (80 mile round trip) five times by car. How much energy did I use?How much CO2 did I generate?
12 Answer – Q1 Total distance travelled was 400 miles 400 miles = 400 miles x 1.6 km mile-1 =640 kmFrom Table 3.4 in Theme 2Average car consumes 3.5 MJ km-1Energy consumed= 640 km x 3.5 MJ km-1= 2240 MJ
13 Answer – Q2 Total distance travelled was 400 miles 400 miles = 400 miles x 1.6 km mile-1 =640 kmFrom Table 4.2 in Theme 2Average figure for petrol car is 385 gm CO2 km-1Energy consumed= 640 km x 385 gm CO2 km-1= gm= kg(note that this is equivalent to 0.25 tonnes!)
14 Minimising Our Impact on the Environment PreventionTechnical measuresAdministrative measures
15 ExerciseWhat measures can we consider to reduce the environmental impacts of road travel?
16 Report of Travel Analyse your travel 14 marks Assess information collected 8 marksDevelop 5 year plan to reduce your CO2 emissions 25 marksDiscuss the viability of your plan marks3 marks for presentation(Total of 60 marks)
18 Some tips Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Use table to present data For energy use see Table 3.4 in Theme 2Stage 2Identify and explainStage 3Should be based on your own travelOption b available if your road travel is minimal
19 Some tips (continued) Stage 4 Pros and cons Strengths and weaknesses Who needs to do what