4ExerciseWhat are the environmental impacts of road transport?
5Spray Diagram Noise Emissions Energy Land use Wastes Resources CO2NOxCONoiseEmissionsVOCsEnergyEnvironmentalAspects ofRoad transportParticulatesOzoneTyres(Rubber)Land useWastesResourcesManufactureOilCar (Scrap)UseOilRubberPlasticSteelWater / land pollutionOther chemicalsOther metals
6Life Cycle Assessment Manufacture Use Disposal Examines environmental impacts which occur“from cradle to grave”
7Life Cycle Assessment - Petrol Extraction of oilTransport of oilRefiningTransportUse
8CalculationA car weighs 1600 kg. The driver weighs 80 kg. What is its kinetic energy when driven at 90 km hr –1?
9Answer Kinetic energy = 0.5 m v2 Where m = mass (kg) andv = velocity (m/s)First convert velocity in km/hr to m/sDivide by no. of seconds in 1 hour (3600)Multiply by no. of metres in a km (1000)So 90 km/hr = 90 x 1000 = 25 m/s
10Answer (continued) Total mass = 1600 kg + 80 kg = 1680 kg So kinetic energy = 0.5 x 1680 x = J = 5.25 x 105 J, or = 525 kJ
11Exercise I traveled to Chester (80 mile round trip) five times by car. How much energy did I use?How much CO2 did I generate?
12Answer – Q1 Total distance travelled was 400 miles 400 miles = 400 miles x 1.6 km mile-1 =640 kmFrom Table 3.4 in Theme 2Average car consumes 3.5 MJ km-1Energy consumed= 640 km x 3.5 MJ km-1= 2240 MJ
13Answer – Q2 Total distance travelled was 400 miles 400 miles = 400 miles x 1.6 km mile-1 =640 kmFrom Table 4.2 in Theme 2Average figure for petrol car is 385 gm CO2 km-1Energy consumed= 640 km x 385 gm CO2 km-1= gm= kg(note that this is equivalent to 0.25 tonnes!)
14Minimising Our Impact on the Environment PreventionTechnical measuresAdministrative measures
15ExerciseWhat measures can we consider to reduce the environmental impacts of road travel?
16Report of Travel Analyse your travel 14 marks Assess information collected 8 marksDevelop 5 year plan to reduce your CO2 emissions 25 marksDiscuss the viability of your plan marks3 marks for presentation(Total of 60 marks)
18Some tips Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Use table to present data For energy use see Table 3.4 in Theme 2Stage 2Identify and explainStage 3Should be based on your own travelOption b available if your road travel is minimal
19Some tips (continued) Stage 4 Pros and cons Strengths and weaknesses Who needs to do what