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Modular System of Simulation Patterns for a Spatial-Processes Laboratory Reinhard König Faculty of Architecture, Chair of Stadtquartiersplanung und Entwerfen, University of Karlsruhe, Germany Presentation for the ICA Workshop on Geospatial Analysis and Modeling

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Intention examine particular planning theories using geosimulation techniques: –cellular automata –multi agent systems interplay of theory and simulation combine the existing scenario models simulation patterns as the basis for a geographically object library

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Documentation of Simulation Patterns Standardized Format: (a)Name (b) Input, Interface (also used functions and procedures) (c) Mathematical Formalization (d) Textual Description (e) Figures (f) Program Parameters (and eventually interpretations) (g) Core Algorithm (h) Further Elaboration (i) Integration in Superordinate Areas (j) URL of the Program (k) References

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First Example: Segregation Pattern agents are spread randomly: preference of a agent for wine or beer: number of beer or wine drinkers in the local neighbourhood: BATTY, Michael (2005): Cities and Complexity. Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals. Cambridge: MIT Press.

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The conditions, if an agent changes his position or stays in place changes position:

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Second Example: Economies of Scale Pattern global parameters: production costs D travel expenses F factor for returns to scale S prize K of petrol for a distance unit random positions for ten competing Markets M (assume they all sell the same product) relative Prices N at a location i: N i (t) = P j (t) + F i F i = d ij * K customer is assigned to the catchment area G of market M j where: G i ← min j N i

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The bid price of a market m at t+1 is calculated from the demand ∑G i,m (= size of the market’s catchment area), the global production costs D, and the factor for the returns to scale S: Since the bid price P is now different in each market (in the case of varying extensions of the catchment areas and increasing returns to scale) this shows effects on the calculation of the relative price N i and on the catchment area G.

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Experimentation: Segregation with Central Places add a central place (ore more places) at cell m agents change their position, if there is a better (more central) location to occupy:

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Experimentation: Economies of Scale with Segregation The demand C of potential customers is no longer distributed equally over the cellular space but is represented by the mobile agents: The bid price P z of a market at t+1: The search for the most advantageous place is no longer orientated on the distance to the centers but on the local prices N i :

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Conclusion A modular system of simulation patterns would enhance the scientific basis of the examination of spatial processes. Creation of a standardized research method Examination of theoretical models in a virtual laboratory with the help of simulations Basis for an object library for geographically based automata simulations Simulation patterns can be the basis for future development of user- friendly applications to support the planning practice

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