Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Computer: For undergraduate courses in commerce and management Author: ITL Education Solutions Limited ISBN:9788131733349 Available through:"— Presentation transcript:
Fundamentals of Computer: For undergraduate courses in commerce and management Author: ITL Education Solutions Limited ISBN: Available through: Parama Publishers & Distributors Ltd. Momtaz Plaza (3rd Floor) House 7 Road 4 Dhanmondi Dhaka 1205 Bangladesh T
A computer is an electronic machine devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms. Development of civilization Fingers and pebbles for computing computing needs also grew Harnessing the power of computers
Characteristics Of Computers Speed Millions of instructions per second. 1 MHz (Megahertz) is one million instructions per second. Accuracy Capable of doing only what it is instructed to do faulty instructions~ GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out) Diligence No tiredness and/or lack of concentration Reliability Some predetermined standard for operation without any failure Hardware level- built-in diagnostic capabilities
Characteristics Of Computers … Storage Capability Store large amounts of data Recall almost instantaneously The main memory~ relatively small The secondary storage devices such as magnetic tape or disks. brought into the main memory for processing Versatility Perform multiple tasks simultaneously Play music and print a document and...
Characteristics Of Computers … Resource Sharing Not isolated machines! Computers today have the capability to connect with each other Apart from device sharing, data and information can also be shared among groups of computers, thus creating a large information and knowledge base.
Development Of Computers Chronology Fingers Pebbles Sand Tables Abacus Napier Bones Slide Rule Pascaline Stepped Reckoner Punch Card System Difference Engine Analytical Engine Hollerith's Tabulator Other related dev. vacuum tube differential analyzer Growth in commerce and other human activities
Some Early Computers MARK-I Computer IBM Sponsored ABC Computer 1939 Binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, logic Colossus vacuum tubes, programmable ENIAC vacuum tubes, 160 KW, 30 tons EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC Different technology
Generations Of Computers First Generation (1940–56): Vacuum Tubes Memory- magnetic drums (data, programs) Input- punched cards and paper tape Output was displayed in the form of printouts Large size, expensive to operate, unreliable, lack of standard in programming ENIAC, EDVAC, and UNIVAC. Second Generation (1956–63): Transistors More portable. Still required air conditioning Much smaller than vacuum tubes Assembly language- used mnemonics Computational time of these computers was reduced to microseconds from milliseconds
Generations Of Computers … Third Generation (1964–early 1970s): IC Integrated circuit (IC) technology Faster- microseconds to nanoseconds More portable and reliable Cheaper- less power and generated less heat, maintenance cost was quite low Commercial production- easier and cheaper Fourth Generation (Early 1970+): Microprocessors Size? AC Required? Portability? Reliability? Cost?- production? maintenance? Interconnection of computers- resource sharing Internet
Generations Of Computers … Fifth Generation (Present And Beyond): Artificial Intelligence Mega Chips- Super Large Scale Integrated (SLSI) Millions of electronic components on a single chip approximate the memory capacity of the human mind Parallel Processing multiple central processing units Artificial Intelligence (AI) simulate and reproduce human behavior including thinking, speaking and reasoning AI comprises a group of related technologies expert systems (ES), natural language processing (NLP), speech recognition, vision recognition, and robotics.
Classification Of Computers
Classification Of Computers- Purpose General-purpose Computers Perform a range of tasks, Store numerous programs Generally lack speed and efficiency Used in your schools and homes Specific-purpose Computers Designed to handle a specific problem or to perform a single specific task Instructions (specific task) built into the machine Circuits are redesigned for another type of task Lacks versatility Fast and efficient Airline reservations, satellite tracking, air traffic control.
Data handling- Analog Computers Works on the principle of measuring measurements obtained are translated into desired data Electrical parameters, such as voltages, resistances or currents, to represent the data Does not deal directly with the numbers. measure continuous physical magnitudes (such as temperature, pressure, and voltage), which are analogous to the numbers under consideration. Petrol pump may have an analog computer that converts the flow of pumped petrol into two measurements – the quantity of petrol and the price for that quantity. They give approximate results Very fast in operation as all the calculations are done in ‘parallel mode The accuracy of analog computers is less
Data handling- Digital Computers Data represented in a digital form process data (including text, sound, graphics, and video) into a digital value (in 0s and 1s) Analog quantities must be converted into digital quantity before processing Output is digital The digital output has to be converted into analog quantity if required. Higher accuracy at a faster rate The desktop PC at your home is a classic example of digital computer.
Data handling- Hybrid Computers Measuring feature of an analog computer plus the counting feature of a digital computer Computational purposes- analog components Storage- digital memories Uses analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters Broadly used for scientific applications, various fields of engineering and in industrial control processes.
Functionality- Micro Computers Small, low cost digital computer Consists of a microprocessor, a storage unit, an input channel, and an output channel all of which may be on one chip inserted into one or several PC boards Requires a power supply and connecting cables, appropriate peripherals (keyboard, monitor, printer, disk drives, etc.), an operating system and other software programs can make a complete system Originally designed for individual users only Now powerful to support businesses functions Networked together- serve multiple user
Functionality- Micro Computers … Desktop Computer Most common micro computer Intended for stand-alone use by an individual. Typically consist of a system unit, a display monitor, a keyboard, internal hard disk storage, and other peripheral devices Laptop Portable computer- travelling, built in battery Also known as notebooks Smaller computers enclosing all the basic features of a normal desktop computer Expensive as compared to desktop computers
Functionality- Micro Computers … Hand-held Computers Also called Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Also known as palmtop computers Stored in a pocket, used by the user is holding it Uses a pen or electronic stylus vs. keyboard Can be connected to printer or a disk drive to generate output or store data Limited memory and are less powerful
Functionality- Mini Computers Also called a mid-range computer Higher performance than micro computers- process and store less data than a mainframe Often connected to a mainframe in order to perform the auxiliary operations. Size~ of a two-drawer filing cabinet Designed to meet the computing needs for several people simultaneously in a small to medium size business environment. Multi-user systems - capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 simultaneous users Centralized storehouse for a cluster of workstations or as a network server. These are also used for real-time controls and engineering design work. High-performance workstations with graphics requirement.
Functionality- Mainframe Computers Mainframes are the second largest (in capability and size) of the computer family high-volume, processor-intensive computing Centralization- It consists of a high-end computer processor, with related peripheral devices, capable of supporting large volumes of data processing, high performance on-line transaction processing systems, and extensive data storage and retrieval. However, a mainframe can usually execute many programs simultaneously at a high speed, whereas super computers are designed for single processes.
Functionality- Super Computers Special purpose machines, which are specially designed to maximize the numbers of FLOPS (Floating Point Operation Per Second) More than one gigaflop/sec is considered a super computer Range of 400–10,000 MFLOPS For solving scientific and engineering problems Contains a number of CPUs that operate in parallel to make it faster. Super computers help in many applications such as information retrieval computer-aided design. Can resolve complex mathematical equations
The Computer System Intelligent thinking machine? Input Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU) Output Unit Memory/Storage Unit
The Computer System … Control unit and the registers
Types Of Input Devices Keyboard Pointing Devices Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, touch-screen, digitizer pen Camera Scanners- different types OCR software (Optical Character Recognition) OMR software (Optical Mark Recognition) MICR (Mag. Ink Character Reader) Bar code reader- multiple types
Types Of Output Devices Hard copy Vs. Soft copy Printers- Dot matrix, daisy wheel, drum, ink-jet, laser Plotters- pen based (Slow, high res.) flat, drum Monitor Resolution, DPI, Refresh rate LCD and CRT and …
Types Of Memory Primary Memory RAM, ROM Secondary memory Floppy/USB Hard disk Magnetic tape
Applications Of Computer Science Education Medicine and Health Care Engineering/Architecture/Manufacturing Entertainment Communication Business Application Publishing Banking