Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Computer: For undergraduate courses in commerce and management Author: ITL Education Solutions Limited ISBN:9788131733349 Available through:"— Presentation transcript:
1Fundamentals of Computer: For undergraduate courses in commerce and management Author: ITL Education Solutions Limited ISBN:Available through:Parama Publishers & Distributors Ltd. Momtaz Plaza (3rd Floor) House 7 Road 4 Dhanmondi Dhaka 1205 Bangladesh T
3Introduction A computer is an electronic machine devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms.Development of civilizationFingers and pebbles for computingcomputing needs also grewHarnessing the power of computers
4Characteristics Of Computers SpeedMillions of instructions per second. 1 MHz (Megahertz) is one million instructions per second.AccuracyCapable of doing only what it is instructed to dofaulty instructions~ GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out)DiligenceNo tiredness and/or lack of concentrationReliabilitySome predetermined standard for operation without any failureHardware level- built-in diagnostic capabilities
5Characteristics Of Computers … Storage CapabilityStore large amounts of dataRecall almost instantaneouslyThe main memory~ relatively smallThe secondary storage devicessuch as magnetic tape or disks.brought into the main memory for processingVersatilityPerform multiple tasks simultaneouslyPlay music and print a document and ...
6Characteristics Of Computers … Resource SharingNot isolated machines!Computers today have the capability to connect with each otherApart from device sharing, data and information can also be shared among groups of computers, thus creating a large information and knowledge base.
7Development Of Computers Growth in commerce and other human activitiesChronologyFingersPebblesSand TablesAbacusNapier BonesSlide RulePascalineStepped ReckonerPunch Card SystemDifference EngineAnalytical EngineHollerith's TabulatorOther related dev.vacuum tubedifferential analyzer
9Generations Of Computers First Generation (1940–56): Vacuum TubesMemory- magnetic drums (data, programs)Input- punched cards and paper tapeOutput was displayed in the form of printoutsLarge size, expensive to operate, unreliable, lack of standard in programmingENIAC, EDVAC, and UNIVAC.Second Generation (1956–63): TransistorsMore portable. Still required air conditioningMuch smaller than vacuum tubesAssembly language- used mnemonicsComputational time of these computers was reduced to microseconds from milliseconds
10Generations Of Computers … Third Generation (1964–early 1970s): ICIntegrated circuit (IC) technologyFaster- microseconds to nanosecondsMore portable and reliableCheaper- less power and generated less heat, maintenance cost was quite lowCommercial production- easier and cheaperFourth Generation (Early 1970+): MicroprocessorsSize? AC Required? Portability? Reliability?Cost?- production? maintenance?Interconnection of computers- resource sharingInternet
11Generations Of Computers … Fifth Generation (Present And Beyond): Artificial IntelligenceMega Chips- Super Large Scale Integrated (SLSI)Millions of electronic components on a single chipapproximate the memory capacity of the human mindParallel Processingmultiple central processing unitsArtificial Intelligence (AI)simulate and reproduce human behaviorincluding thinking, speaking and reasoningAI comprises a group of related technologiesexpert systems (ES), natural language processing (NLP), speech recognition, vision recognition, and robotics.
13Classification Of Computers- Purpose General-purpose ComputersPerform a range of tasks, Store numerous programsGenerally lack speed and efficiencyUsed in your schools and homesSpecific-purpose ComputersDesigned to handle a specific problem or to perform a single specific taskInstructions (specific task) built into the machineCircuits are redesigned for another type of taskLacks versatilityFast and efficientAirline reservations, satellite tracking, air traffic control.
14Data handling- Analog Computers Works on the principle of measuringmeasurements obtained are translated into desired dataElectrical parameters, such as voltages, resistances or currents, to represent the dataDoes not deal directly with the numbers.measure continuous physical magnitudes (such as temperature, pressure, and voltage), which are analogous to the numbers under consideration.Petrol pump may have an analog computer that converts the flow of pumped petrol into two measurements – the quantity of petrol and the price for that quantity.They give approximate resultsVery fast in operation as all the calculations are done in ‘parallel modeThe accuracy of analog computers is less
15Data handling- Digital Computers Data represented in a digital formprocess data (including text, sound, graphics, and video) into a digital value (in 0s and 1s)Analog quantities must be converted into digital quantity before processingOutput is digitalThe digital output has to be converted into analog quantity if required.Higher accuracy at a faster rateThe desktop PC at your home is a classic example of digital computer.
16Data handling- Hybrid Computers Measuring feature of an analog computer plus the counting feature of a digital computerComputational purposes- analog componentsStorage- digital memoriesUses analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog convertersBroadly used for scientific applications, various fields of engineering and in industrial control processes.
17Functionality- Micro Computers Small, low cost digital computerConsists of a microprocessor, a storage unit, an input channel, and an output channelall of which may be on one chip inserted into one or several PC boardsRequires a power supply and connecting cables, appropriate peripherals (keyboard, monitor, printer, disk drives, etc.), an operating system and other software programs can make a complete systemOriginally designed for individual users onlyNow powerful to support businesses functionsNetworked together- serve multiple user
18Functionality- Micro Computers … Desktop ComputerMost common micro computerIntended for stand-alone use by an individual.Typically consist of a system unit, a display monitor, a keyboard, internal hard disk storage, and other peripheral devicesLaptopPortable computer- travelling, built in batteryAlso known as notebooksSmaller computers enclosing all the basic features of a normal desktop computerExpensive as compared to desktop computers
19Functionality- Micro Computers … Hand-held ComputersAlso called Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)Also known as palmtop computersStored in a pocket, used by the user is holding itUses a pen or electronic stylus vs. keyboardCan be connected to printer or a disk drive to generate output or store dataLimited memory and are less powerful
20Functionality- Mini Computers Also called a mid-range computerHigher performance than micro computers- process and store less data than a mainframeOften connected to a mainframe in order to perform the auxiliary operations.Size~ of a two-drawer filing cabinetDesigned to meet the computing needs for several people simultaneously in a small to medium size business environment.Multi-user systems - capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 simultaneous usersCentralized storehouse for a cluster of workstations or as a network server.These are also used for real-time controls and engineering design work. High-performance workstations with graphics requirement.
21Functionality- Mainframe Computers Mainframes are the second largest (in capability and size) of the computer familyhigh-volume, processor-intensive computingCentralization- It consists of a high-end computer processor, with related peripheral devices, capable of supporting large volumes of data processing, high performance on-line transaction processing systems, and extensive data storage and retrieval.However, a mainframe can usually execute many programs simultaneously at a high speed, whereas super computers are designed for single processes.
22Functionality- Super Computers Special purpose machines, which are specially designed to maximize the numbers of FLOPS (Floating Point Operation Per Second)More than one gigaflop/sec is considered a super computerRange of 400–10,000 MFLOPSFor solving scientific and engineering problemsContains a number of CPUs that operate in parallel to make it faster.Super computers help in many applications such as information retrieval computer-aided design.Can resolve complex mathematical equations
23Intelligent thinking machine? The Computer SystemInput UnitCentral Processing Unit (CPU)Output UnitMemory/Storage Unit. To attain information, data is entered through input unit, processed by central processing unit (CPU), and displayed through output unit.Intelligent thinking machine?
24The Computer System …Control unit and the registers
25Types Of Input Devices Keyboard Pointing Devices Camera Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, touch-screen, digitizer penCameraScanners- different typesOCR software (Optical Character Recognition)OMR software (Optical Mark Recognition)MICR (Mag. Ink Character Reader)Bar code reader- multiple types
26Types Of Output Devices Hard copy Vs. Soft copyPrinters-Dot matrix, daisy wheel, drum, ink-jet, laserPlotters- pen based (Slow, high res.)flat, drumMonitorResolution, DPI, Refresh rateLCD and CRT and …
27Types Of Memory Primary Memory Secondary memory RAM, ROM Floppy/USB Hard diskMagnetic tape
28Applications Of Computer Science Education Medicine and Health Care Engineering/Architecture/Manufacturing Entertainment Communication Business Application Publishing Banking