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Sustainable Transport in Africa: Emphasizing Transit-Oriented Transportation LAMATA presentation at the 7 th Lagos State Summit on Climate Change 21 st.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Transport in Africa: Emphasizing Transit-Oriented Transportation LAMATA presentation at the 7 th Lagos State Summit on Climate Change 21 st."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Transport in Africa: Emphasizing Transit-Oriented Transportation LAMATA presentation at the 7 th Lagos State Summit on Climate Change 21 st – 23 rd April, 2015

2 Sustainable Transportation … aims at promoting better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs while reducing the social and environmental impacts of current mobility practices 2

3 Government Sustainability Nature of laws; Enforcement mechanisms, Flow of public and private resources into Sustainable Transport Safety & Environmental Sustainability -Health of future citizens- Ambient air quality Emissions factors Public health records on air pollution related diseases Accident and safety Social Sustainability -Equity- Travel times and other measures of access by gender social class location of housing Crimes and incidents in transit Costs of travel budget shares etc… Economic Sustainability -Innovation & Efficiency- Transport costs in National accounts Fares and fuel costs Financial balance of private and public transport firms Institutional structure of transport industry Transport System: Geographical area, Participants, Modal split, Vehicle kms travelled and Origin to destination survey Source: Juhel, Marc (2012): Sustainability Toolkit for transport projects. TRL/World Bank Three Pillars of Sustainable Transport 3

4 Transportation in Africa Rail Air MaritimeRoad Prevalent mode of transportation in Africa, conveying 80% of the goods traffic and 90% of the passenger traffic on the continent. Only 1% of the global railway passenger traffic and 2% of goods are carried by the African railway network. African ports handle only 6% of global traffic and 6 ports (3 each in Egypt and South Africa) handle about 50% of Africa’s container traffic. Africa’s share of global air transport remains modest at about 2.3% of passenger traffic and 1% of freight. Cost of transport and insurance represents 30% of the total value of exports in Africa, which compares unfavourably with 8.6% for all developing countries. 4

5 Majo r Issu es Cities lose an average of $7 million daily to traffic congestion High percentage of transport cost in proportion to total household income Transport sector contributes 25% of the 967.8 million tonnes of CO 2 emitted in Africa Increase in social exclusion from economic activities 5 Situation in Africa

6 Transportation challenges in African Cities Cairo, Egypt Poor public transport system Institutional weakness and fragmentation Inadequate financial arrangements High accident rate: 1000 fatalities and 4000 injuries per year Air and noise pollution Nairobi, Kenya Inadequate integration of city development plan & the transportation network system Inadequate public transport system High cost of transportation Long commuter distance and travel time Inadequate development of non- motorised infrastructure network Poor safety and high incidence of motor traffic accidents Increased pollution and deterioration of the urban environment. Ghana Poor planning and control procedures for land- use development Low capacity of the existing road network Inadequate funding Poor terminal organisation and management The use of small vehicles for public transportation contributes significantly to congestion on the roads Low standards of road traffic awareness, vehicle maintenance and driver behaviour, which contributes to high accident rates Poor maintenance of vehicles which results in excessive emissions 6

7 Lagos, Nigeria Transport Challenges Chronic traffic congestion Uneven urban growth and development Inadequate transport infrastructure inadequate regulatory public transport framework Limited alternatives to vehicular transportation Lack of sufficient high capacity vehicles for public transport Contributes to Air & Noise pollution in Lagos 7

8 Accra, Ghana Observed travel demand patterns Source: Transport And Urban Growth Projections In Ghana, 2012 Over 95% of all transit in Ghana are done by road. Trotros (Minibuses), with a capacity of 12-22 passengers, are responsible for over 50% of transit in Accra and utilise only a quarter of the road space; While Cars, with a capacity ratio of only 1.5 people, carry only 14% of the passengers in Accra and occupies the highest share of the road space at 33%. 8

9 Cairo, Egypt Observed travel demand patterns Source: World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. 2000 About 80% of all transit in Cairo are done by road, where traffic congestions occur most of the day and are not restricted to peak periods alone. Currently, there is no Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Cairo. 9

10 Lagos, Nigeria Demand for trips in Lagos Metropolitan Area by all modes (including walking) was ~22million per day. Walk trips accounted for 40% of total trips in Metropolitan Lagos. About 97% of all transit in Lagos are done by road. Observed travel demand patterns Source: LAMATA Strategic Transport Master Plan 10

11 Nairobi, Kenya In 2011, the total travel demand in Nairobi was 7.5million trips per day and over 95% of those trips are done by road. Walk trips accounted over 40% of total trips in Nairobi. The present commuter distance ranges between 30km – 40km. Observed travel demand patterns Source: Mairura Omwenga Integrated Transport System for Liveable City Environment: A Case Study of Nairobi Kenya 47 th ISOCARP Congress 2011 11

12 Environmental Impact Africa Source: IEA The transport sector has become the fastest growing source of greenhouse emissions in Africa as a result of an increase in the motorized means of transportation in Africa. The top three countries on the continent with the highest level of CO 2 emissions by transport sector are South Africa, Egypt and Algeria. 12

13 CO 2 Emissions in Africa Source: IEA Increase in socio-economic activities in many African Countries has resulted in longer commutes, which in turn has contributed to a rise in CO 2 emissions in the Transportation Sector. Environmental Impact 13

14 Nigeria Source: IEA In 2011, Nigeria had the fourth highest CO 2 emission from fuel combustion in Africa after South Africa, Egypt and Algeria respectively. The transport sector, with a 45% share, was the largest contributor to a nationwide CO 2 emission from fuel combustion of 52.8 million tonnes that year. Environmental Impact 14

15 The Lagos Air Quality Monitoring Study (2007-2009) revealed that vehicles contribute approximately 43% to the total level of air pollution in Lagos. Over a quarter of the transport sector contribution to CO 2 emissions in Nigeria comes from Lagos alone. The emission factors for many Nigerian vehicles are close to the Euro 2 Standards, which is 3 to 4 times greater than European values. Lagos Environmental Impact 15

16 Below is a breakdown of emissions per vehicle category: Daily Average CO 2 Emissions in Lagos *HD – Heavy Duty; MD – Medium Duty; LD – Light Duty; PC – Passenger Car; P&D – Petrol and Diesel* Source: LAMATA GHG Emissions Handbook Environmental Impact 16

17 However, in actual terms, the emission per passenger is lower for vehicles with high occupancy rates (e.g – Buses) Daily Average CO 2 Emissions in Lagos *HD – Heavy Duty; MD – Medium Duty; LD – Light Duty; PC – Passenger Car; P&D – Petrol and Diesel* Source: LAMATA GHG Emissions Handbook Environmental Impact 17

18 CO 2 Emissions in Lagos By the year 2032, CO 2 emissions by the transport sector in Lagos are estimated to exceed 15 Million tonnes per annum if measures are not put in place to curtail it. Source: LAMATA GHG Emissions Handbook Environmental Impact 18

19 The Big Moves in Lagos towards a Sustainable Urban Transport System Develop a fully integrated mass rapid transit system to cover activity centers identified Strategic Transport Master Plan (STMP) of the mega city region – Six Rail Lines─ One Monorail Line – 16 BRT Routes ─ Over 20 water routes – Key road projects Introduce a common ticketing system to aid integration of public transport modes. Develop the waterways transport network to integrate with Rail and BRT. Develop a ring road around Metropolitan Lagos to take pressure away from the mainland. Use of ITS technology to optimize the transport network. 19

20 CO 2 Emissions in Lagos Execution of projects within the STMP will result in an emission level less than 8 Million tonnes per annum, which represents over 50% reduction in emissions from the 2032BAU level. Source: LAMATA GHG Emissions Handbook; *BAU – Business As Usual; *STMP – Strategic Transport Master Plan Environmental Impact 20

21 Socio-Economic Impact $8 Billion Total annual direct congestion costs for the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA) $22 Million Wasted daily due to traffic congestion 3.6% of Egypt’s total GDP is lost to congestion in the GCMA alone Cost of Traffic Congestion in Cairo, Egypt Source: Cairo Traffic Congestion Study, 2013 21

22 Cost of Traffic Congestion in Lagos, Nigeria 25% Average household income spent on transportation $7.5 Million Wasted daily due to traffic congestion 49% of average daily income to buy one gallon of petrol 50 work-days ($1,600) Average worker loses per annum to traffic congestion Source: IBM Smarter Transportation Initiative, Lagos, Nigeria Socio-Economic Impact 22

23 Cost of Traffic Congestion $1.1 Million Lost daily to unproductive man-hours, wasted fuel, pollution and cancellation of business appointments, as a result of traffic congestion 35 work-days ($1,095) Average worker loses per year to traffic congestion Source: Urbanisation, Urban Growth and Okada Services in Accra, Ghana Nairobi City County Transport and Urban Decongestion Committee Report, May 2014. Nairobi, Kenya Accra, Ghana Socio-Economic Impact 23

24 Results of Implementing the Strategic Transport Master Plan (STMP) in Lagos, Nigeria Public transport station within 800 meters of every home 2,000 direct and 5,000 indirect jobs created by operating the BRT 5,000 direct and 10,000 indirect jobs created by the Rail sector 80% of public transport journeys (less than 25km) completed within 60 minutes Over 20,000 Danfos(Minibuses) will be taken off the roads 60% reduction in cost per passenger journey Construction of the Lekki Free Trade Zone (LFTZ), Lekki Deep-sea port and Badagry port will decongest traffic within the metropolis Improved transport network will encourage foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Megacity Benefits 24

25 Benefits of Public Transport… Enhances personal opportunities Saves fuel Reduces traffic congestion Provides economic opportunities Drives community growth and revitalisation Saves money Reduces fuel consumption Reduces carbon footprint Benefits 25

26 Sustainable Transport in Africa To attain an appreciable level of sustainable transport in Africa, governments have to create policies, enforce regulations and aid the construction of infrastructures that will steer people towards the use of an integrated multi-modal high capacity Public Transport System. Embracing transit-oriented transportation in Africa will help reduce traffic congestion, cut the cost of travel and lessen pollution in communities. This will make African communities attractive to investors, boost socio-economic activities and improve the well-being of its citizens. Conclusion 26


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