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Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India Presented by: Dr. G. S. Grewal Electrical Research and Development Association.

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India Presented by: Dr. G. S. Grewal Electrical Research and Development Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable Energy: The Wind-Hydrogen Option for Remote Communities in India Presented by: Dr. G. S. Grewal Electrical Research and Development Association (ERDA) ERDA Road, GIDC Makarpura Vadodara – Presented at Transmission, Distribution & Metering India (Enabling Smart Grid & Smart Metering) November 11, 2010 New Delhi

2 Energy Statistics For India ( ) Coal Production : Million Tonnes Power Generation : Billion kWh Thermal Generation : Billion kWh Hydel Generation : Billion kWh Crude Oil Production : 32.2 Million Tonnes Crude Oil Import : 99.4 Million Tonnes Consumption of Petroleum Products : Million Tonnes Natural Gas Production : 32.2 Billion Nm 3 Fire Wood, & Dung Cake :300 Million Tonnes

3 Energy Reserves : A Comparison TypeIndiaWorld% Oil (MT)800138, Gas (MTOE)700139, Coal (MT)699471,031, Hydro (MTOE) Nuclear MT - MILLION TONS MTOE – MILLION TONS OIL EQUIVALENT

4 Power Scenario in India SectorInstalled Capacity (April 30, 2006)Percentage MW% Hydro32,32626 Thermal82, Nuclear3, Wind/Renewable6,1915 Total124, Captive: Grid Connected 14,63612%

5 Electricity Generation In India SectorMillion kWh ( ) % Hydro101, Thermal (Including Wind) 497, Nuclear17, Import From Bhutan1, Total617, Captive74,13012 % Renewable6,2001 %

6 India- Primary Energy Pie Chart

7 Sector Wise Consumption: India ( ) SectorMillion kWh% Total381,964100% Industrial133,29334% Domestic96,01825% Commercial30,5988% Agriculture89,87624% Traction9,7633% Others22,4166%

8 T&D Losses & Auxiliary Consumption GROSS GENERATION ,366 MILLION kWh TOTAL CONSUMPTION381,964 MILLION kWh DIFFERENCE205,402 MILLION kWh AUXILIARY CONSUMPTION8% T&D LOSSES32% ANNUAL LOSSES OF ELECTRICITY BOARDS Rs. 20,000 CRORES

9 USA 13,241 kWh AUSTRALIA 11,205 kWh UK 6,631 kWh SOUTH AFRICA 4,313 kWh CHINA 1,139 kWh Per Capita Energy Consumption: Some Nations

10 WORLD AVERAGE ≈ 4000 kWh Per Capita Energy Consumption: Global Metric

11 kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh kWh Per capita electrical power consumption level is still very low. Indian Energy Scene

12 Per Capita Energy Consumption India  PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh

13 Per Capita Energy Consumption India  PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh  TARGET: MISSION 2012: 1000 kWh

14 Per Capita Energy Consumption India  PRESENT LEVEL: 640 kWh  TARGET: MISSION 2012: 1000 kWh  PRESENT LEVEL FOR GUJARAT: 1320 kWh

15 INDIA NEEDS CONSUME TO CONSUME MORE ENERGY Bottom Line

16 EnergyIntensity Energy Intensity Energy Cost As a Percentage of Manufacturing Cost

17 Energy Costs In Indian Industry ( As % age of Manufacturing Cost ) CEMENT : 34.9 % ALUMINIUM : 34.2 % GLASS : 32.5 % CHEMICAL : 23.9 % PAPER : 22.8 % FERTILIZERS : 18.3 % IRON & STEEL : 15.8 % FOUNDRIES : 10.5 % TEXTILES : 8.6 % ELECT. ENGG. : 3.2 %

18 Energy Efficiency

19 Energy Costs In Indian Industry ( As % age of Manufacturing Cost ) Industry Unit India Developed Nations IRON & STEEL Gcal/tonne – 6 CEMENT Gcal/tonne 1 – – 0.9 ALUMINIUM MWh/tonne 16 – – 15 PULP & PAPER kg Steam / kg 12 –

20 Energy Intensities In Selected Industries ( Gcal / tonne ) STEEL CEMENT ALUMINIUM FERTILIZER INDIA ITALY JAPAN SWEDEN U.K U.S.A GERMANY India over LOWEST 57.6% 59.0% 71.2% 11.8% India over HIGHEST 36.1% 30.0% 36.1% -8.7%

21 High Power Cost Makes Our Industry Noncompetitive

22 KOREA USA CHINA INDIA 0.095

23 Some Facts of Grid Connected Thermal Generation-I 85% Generation is Thermal Efficiency : 30% 1 kWh : 3 Units Coal/Gas/Oil T & D Losses : 30% - 35% 1 kWh to user : 4 to 5 Units Coal /Gas /Oil Capital Costs : 4 to 5 Rs. Crore/MW Add T&D - Rs. 60,000 to 70,000/kW

24 Lead time for setting up a power station is 5 to 10 years. Electricity cannot be stored. 1 kWh generation leads to generation of 1 kg of C0 2. Environmental pollution due to thermal power plants is a serious problem. Some Facts of Grid Connected Thermal Generation-II

25 Carbon Emissions Fuelkg. CO 2 / kWh Coal Oil Gas (Open Cycle) Combined Cycle0.43 Hydro, Wind, Solar, Nuclear Negligible Total Global Emissions : :6.5 Billion mT Carbon :23 Billion mT CO 2

26 The World ’ s Energy Resources Are Limited!

27 Renewable Energy Sources Solar Wind Bio Geo Tidal

28 Sources Of Energy NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY  SOLAR ENERGY  WIND POWER  GEOTHERMAL  BIOMASS  TIDAL POWER and 

29 Sources Of Energy NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY  SOLAR ENERGY  WIND POWER  GEOTHERMAL  BIOMASS  TIDAL POWER and ENERGY CONSERVATION  ENERGY CONSERVATION

30 Economics of Renewable Energy

31 Potential of Renewable Energy Technologies in India in India

32 RealizationofRenewable Energy Technologies in India Realization of Renewable Energy Technologies in India

33 Summary of Present Energy Scene: India India meets about 30% of its energy need through imports and likely to increase in future. To sustained growth of 8%, India would need to grow electrical supply by 5-7 times. Coal shall remain primary energy source till About 15% of villages are not electrified. Concerns for the threat to climate change. Peak shortage upto 25%, (India average-11%). MOP target of adding 100,000 MW generation capacity by Not much change in rural household energy consumption in last decade. Integrated Energy Policy- Planning Commission, Dec 2005 Integrated Energy Policy- Planning Commission, Dec 2005

34 What is the role of renewable energy? How to increase India’s known energy resources? How to ensure energy security? How to encourage clean energy system? How to deal with persistent power shortages? How to provide clean cooking energy for all? How to provide access to electricity to all households? Integrated Energy Policy - Planning Commission, Dec 2005 Integrated Energy Policy - Planning Commission, Dec 2005 Pressing Problem

35 A Small Step in Providing a Sustainable Solution: A National Effort at ERDA Development of Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System for Remote Coastal Communities in India Essential ingredients of the System are as Below:  Wind Energy Based Electricity Generation.  Electricity is Used to Run a Water Electrolyser to Generate Hydrogen.  Hydrogen is Stored and Supplied via Pipeline to Coastal Community Kitchens.

36 Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System Hydrogen pipeline storage Electrolyser Hydrogen Wind turbine

37 Wind Hydrogen Based Cooking System Clean fuel for cooking. Stand alone - No other source required. Negligible maintenance and recurring cost (economical). Indigenous technology - needs validation, field trail.

38 Why Hydrogen Can be Fuel India-I Universal fuel, can provide energy security. Available in unlimited quantity. Can be produced from sunlight, wind, bio mass etc. Wide applications –transport, power generation, cooking, etc. Stored energy that can be used later on demand. Non toxic, clean /non polluting. Will reduce global warming. Energy source for 21 st century Energy source for 21 st century

39 Why Hydrogen Can be Fuel India-II Highest energy content per unit mass (120 MJ/kg). Combustion energy cycles based on H 2 higher efficiency than gasoline cycles (25 %). Dynamics of combustion for H 2 superior compared to gasoline and natural gas.  Higher flame speed in air(2.65 m/sec).  Higher diffusivity in air (D=0.61 cm 2 /sec).  Lower ignition energy (0.02 mWs ).  H 2 based fuel cells have efficiencies >60%.

40 Energy Densities FuelEnergy per unit mass (MJ/kg) Liquid Gasoline LPG LNG Methanol Gaseous Natural gas Hydrogen

41 A Comparative Data Sheet of Fuels PropertiesH2H2 CH 4 PETROL Lower heating value (kWh/kg) Self ignition temperature( 0 C) Flame temperature( 0 C) Ignition limits in air (vol%) Minimal ignition energy (mWs) Flame propagation in air (m/s) ToxicityNo High Diffusion coefficient in air (cm 2 /s)

42 Areas of Concern Generation (Economics) Storage (Safety) Application

43 Electrolysis

44 Production of Hydrogen From H 2 O 1). Cost of Producing H 2 Using Electrolysis in the Thermodynamic Limit H 2 O (l) = H 2(g) + ½ O 2(g) at P = 0.1 MPa, T = 298 K E = V F Z : H 2 = 2H + + 2e - = x x 2 = kJ/mole = kWh/mole = x (1000/2) = 32 kWh/kg of H 2 II). Cost of Producing H 2 Using Electrolysis in a Real Cell = 1.5 x E =48 kWh/kg of H 2 At Rs5/unit, the electrolysis cost then becomes R c = 48 x 5 = Rs. 240 / kg of H 2

45 H 2 Economics For IC Engines: Why Green Hydrogen is Required  Current Petrol Cost in India = Rs. 55/ltr = Rs. 55,000/m 3  Density of Petrol = 865 kg/m 3  Hence Unit Rate of Petrol = Rs /kg.  Now H 2 Has Three Times the Calorific Value of Petrol (11,8000 kJ/kg Against About 40,000 kJ/kg for Petrol)  Hence Cost Equivalent for H 2 =Rs. 80/one kg. Equivalent of Petrol  Bottom Line : If One Uses Just the Electricity Consumption Cost in Production of H 2, Grid Electricity Costs Are Still Not Comparable With the Prevailing Cost Of Petrol. Hence Renewable Production of Hydrogen is Required.

46 Hydrogen Storage Technologies  Gaseous  Liquid  Solid State Metal Hydrides  Slush (a mixture of solid and liquid Hydrogen)

47 Storage - Hydrogen Compressed gas storage tank Higher cost of tank and process plant Technology available Liquid Hydrogen Lower volume Larger energy input Chemical Hydrides Hydrogen adsorbed Technology still under development

48 Some Pure Magnesium Facts Magnesium hydrides as MgH 2 Has a storage capacity of 7.6% mass Energy density of 2.33 kWh / kg [120 x 10 3 x 0.076] = 9120 kJ

49 Comparative Requirements Alloy system/fuelMass requirements(kgs) Volume requirements(lit) MgH Mg 2 NiH FeTiH LaNi 5 H H 2 gas Liquid hydrogen14086 Gasoline50

50 Volume of 4 kg of Hydrogen Compacted in Various Ways Mg 2 NiH 4 LaNi 5 H 6 H 2 (Liquid)H 2 (200 bar)

51 Wind Power: Some Facts Wind power- Inconsistent, Incoherent with demand About 25%- Utilisation factor Negligible maintenance and recurring cost. India ranks 4 th in wind generating capacity (5,500 MW- India, 59,000 MW- Global). Wind power potential- 45,000 MW

52 Wind Potential: State-Wise StateGross Potential,(MW) Installed Capacity, (MW) Total Power Generation,(MW) Penetration (Percentage of Total Power Generated), (%) Andhra9, , Gujarat7, , Karnataka7, , Maharashtra4,5191,00116, Tamil Nadu4,1592,89312, Total46,4925,34081,4766.5

53 Wind Map of India

54 Types of Wind Mills

55 Wind Mill and Its Internals

56 The Flow Field Around a Wind Mill

57 The Power Output - Wind Speed Relationship

58 Power Coefficient Versus Tip Speed

59 Rotor Diameter for 50 Household Community

60 Techno-Economics for 50 Household Community

61 Rotor Diameter for 500 Household Community

62 Techno-Economics for 500 Household Community

63 Wind - Hydrogen Cooking System : Relative Costs Capital itemStatus of TechnologyCapital cost Wind turbineProven, available30 % ElectrolyserExpensive, available35 % Hydrogen storagePressure vessel, available10 % BurnerDeveloped5% AccessoriesAvailable20 %

64 Hydrogen fueled Burner: Developments at ERDA Developed hydrogen fuelled Burner. Modified Gas injection and entire burner to run on hydrogen. Measured fuel efficiency: Observed 40%. Target fuel efficiency > 45% Hydrogen fuelled stove developed at ERDA

65 Temperature-Time Profiles Note: LPG & Hydrogen Burner Profiles are Identical Efficiency: H 2 = 40% (at 0.04 Nm/hr.); LPG = 20 % Efficiency: H 2 = 40% (at 0.04 Nm 3 /hr.); LPG = 20 %

66 Line Diagram of a More Elaborate Wind – Hydrogen Power System

67 Power Usage Patterns of Typical Village Communities in India

68 Load –Time Power Usage Pattern of Typical Village Communities in India

69 Typical Wind and Hydrogen Based Electricity Generation Pattern

70 National Status AreaAchievementRemark Generation- Electrolysis of water PM Membrane based electrolyser -Demonstrated up to 0.5 Nm 3 / hr Alkaline electrolyser- Commercial model 10 Nm 3 / hr Expensive Successful but expensive Storage Carbon nanotube Cylinder Metal hydride ---? Up to 10 – 20 kgf/cm 2 7% by weight

71 Wind—Hydrogen Systems Can be Economically Deployed for Meeting Electric Power and Fuel (Cooking Gas) Needs of Remote (Isolated) Communities in India. Hydrogen is an Infinitely Abundant, Alternate, Green Fuel for Energy Security, if Generated From Water. Wind-Hydrogen Systems Can Effectively Utilize India’s Nascent Wind Energy Potential Due to its Long Coast Line With High Wind Velocities. Indigenous Wind-Hydrogen Technology is in an Advanced Stage of Readiness for Deployment in the Nation.Conclusions

72 Thank You MTD


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