We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byCharlotte Black
Modified about 1 year ago
1 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006
2 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006
3 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 When a substance burns, it is said to combust. A fuel is a substance that reacts with oxygen (combusts) to release useful energy. Combustion, fuels and hydrocarbons Many fractions obtained from crude oil are used as fuels because they contain hydrocarbons that burn easily and release a large amount of useful energy. Combustion is a rapid reaction between a substance and oxygen that releases heat and light energy.
4 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 What are the products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon? Plenty of air is needed to provide enough oxygen for a hydrocarbon fuel to burn completely. oxygen carbon dioxide hydrocarbon ++ water The blue flame of a gas hob or a Bunsen burner is an example of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon (in this case, natural gas). Complete combustion of hydrocarbons
5 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Complete combustion of propane Propane is a hydrocarbon used in camping gas. What is the equation for its combustion? oxygen carbon dioxide propane ++ water 5O 2 3CO 2 C3H8C3H8 ++ 4H 2 0 How would the equations change if butane was used?
6 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Products of combustion
7 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 If there is a shortage of air (oxygen), incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons takes place. Instead of producing just carbon dioxide and water, incomplete combustion also produces carbon monoxide and/or carbon (soot). It also releases less energy than complete combustion. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas because it reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen. Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons
8 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006
9 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Alternative fuels
10 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Alternative fuels How soon will we be using alternative fuels?
11 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 The need for alternative fuels Most vehicles in the world use petrol or diesel as a fuel. These are produced from crude oil, a fossil fuel. Why is it important to develop and use these fuels before oil supplies run out? As a result, some people have already begun using alternative fuels to power their vehicles, such as biofuels and hydrogen. Although fossil fuels are convenient sources of energy, they are very polluting, and will one day run out.
12 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 What are biofuels? They can be safely combined with normal petrol or diesel and used in conventional engines to reduce levels of harmful emissions without causing engine damage. Biofuels are renewable fuels produced from plant material, such as agricultural crops. Two types of biofuel used in vehicles are bioethanol and biodiesel.
13 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 What is bioethanol? Bioethanol is an alcohol produced by the natural fermentation of the carbohydrates (such as starch) in sugar beet/cane or wheat crops. ‘Flexi-Fuel’ vehicles, fitted with modified fuel injection systems, can run on E85 fuel (85% bioethanol, 15% petrol), which cuts carbon dioxide emissions by 70% compared to normal petrol-engine cars.
14 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 What is biodiesel? Biodiesel is produced by chemically reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol and a catalyst. The process can be completed in 12 hours. There are few garages in the UK that sell biodiesel. Home- made fuels, usually from waste vegetable oils, are heavily taxed. Biodiesel can be mixed with conventional diesel, which significantly reduces emissions, especially toxic hydrocarbons, particulates and carbon monoxide.
15 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Biofuels are carbon neutral: the carbon released during combustion comes from the carbon dioxide the plants took in when they were growing. Storage, transport and distribution costs are low as biofuels can be handled in the same way as conventional fuels. What are some of the advantages of using biofuels? Advantages of biofuels By-products of production, such as pressed seedcake, can be burnt in power stations instead of fossil fuels or used a animal feed.
16 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Disadvantages of biofuels Although biofuels themselves produce relatively little when combusted, their production needs energy from fossil fuels. There are few UK producers of biofuels, and only small quantities of fuel are made. Biofuels therefore need to be imported, mainly from Brazil and South-East Asia. What are some of the disadvantages of using biofuels? The high demand for land to plant biofuel crops can lead to deforestation and habitat loss, for example in Malaysia.
17 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 What are hydrogen fuel cells? Hydrogen fuel cells are electrochemical devices like batteries, which produce electricity by converting hydrogen and oxygen into water. The chemicals inside fuel cells are constantly replenished, so unlike batteries, fuel cells never run flat or need recharging. A big advantage of hydrogen fuel cells is that they do not create any pollution: the only emission they produce is water vapour.
18 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Disadvantages of fuel cells What are some of the disadvantages of fuel cells? The production, storage and distribution of hydrogen for use in fuel cells relies heavily on energy from fossil fuels. Pure hydrogen is expensive and highly flammable. One way around these problems is to replace hydrogen with a more convenient substance. Methanol, natural gas and propane have all shown potential for use in fuel cells.
19 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Opinions on alternative fuels
20 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006
21 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 biodiesel – A biofuel made by chemically reacting plant oils or animal fats with alcohol and a catalyst. bioethanol – A biofuel made from the natural fermentation of the carbohydrates in plants such as sugar cane/beet and wheat. biofuel – A renewable fuel made from biological material, such as plant matter. combustion – A rapid reaction between a substance and oxygen that produces heat and light energy. complete – The type of combustion that only produces carbon dioxide and water. Glossary (1/2)
22 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 fuel – A substance that provides useful energy when it burns. fuel cell – A device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction, e.g. between hydrogen and oxygen. hydrocarbon – A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon. incomplete – The type of combustion that produces carbon monoxide and/or soot in addition to carbon dioxide and water. Glossary (2/2)
23 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Anagrams
24 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Multiple-choice quiz
Global warming 10 October 2015 Learning objective: To know how global warming is effecting the earth Key wordsStarter We will gatherWhat do you already.
Solutions To Fuel Problems L.O: To evaluate alternative fuels and solutions to the problems of waste gases Saturday, October 10, 2015.
What is the topic for today?. Fuels Combustion and Incomplete Combustion Learning Objectives: 1.Know word (and symbol) equations for complete combustion.
GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You MUST be able to write equations for burning hydrocarbons. You should be able to write balanced symbol equations for the.
BURNING FUELS Noadswood Science, Burning Fuels To know the processes involved with burning fuels Monday, May 11, 2015.
Why are alkanes considered to be saturated? What is a hydrocarbon? Why is crude oil called a mixture? What process is used to separate crude oil? For alkanes,
BIOFUELS With over 7 billion people on earth the demand for fuel is higher than ever. It is important that the demand is met with an equal supply but at.
6 Biofuels p.274. Objectives Students should learn: that biofuels can be made from natural products by anaerobic fermentation that there are advantages.
IC.29.3 Alcohol as fuel © Oxford University Press 2011 Alcohol as fuel.
C1 Smart Teach 5: Fuels Fractional Distillation By what process is crude oil separated into its fractions Fractional distillation that takes place at.
Post it Pollutants are dangerous chemicals in the air are called pollutants. Name as many air pollutants as you can from last lesson. Extension: Circle.
© Boardworks Ltd of 40. © Boardworks Ltd of 40.
Alternative Fuels What is there besides gasoline?.
Calderglen High School.
1 of 28© Boardworks Ltd 2011 Smart Teach Chemistry Section 5 Fuels.
Fuels Does an athlete need fuel?. Fuels which burn with a flame.. … need the 3 things shown above.
Biomass Aisha Clark Patricia Deans Kevin Woo. How is electricity produced using biomass energy? Biomass is made from organic material, garbage, or gas.
C1 Topic 5: Fuels Literacy Starters: Sentences and Paragraphs.
Combustion & Fossil Fuels Chapter Combustion (1.11) In combustion, a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen and releases energy. The energy may be.
Crude oil Crude oil and fractional distillation. What do I need to know? Must Recall that crude oil is a mixture of a large number of compounds Should.
Types of Reactions: Combustion LG: I can recognize and predict products of combustion reactions; I can describe hazards of incomplete combustion.
1 of 30© Boardworks Ltd of 30© Boardworks Ltd 2010.
Combustion D. Crowley, Combustion To be able to explain combustion Saturday, August 15, 2015Saturday, August 15, 2015Saturday, August 15, 2015Saturday,
© Boardworks Ltd of 15. © Boardworks Ltd of 15 What is combustion? Combustion is the scientific word for burning. It is the chemical reaction.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells Maddie Droher. What is a fuel cell? An energy conversion device set to replace combustion engines and additional batteries in a number.
Alternative Fuels. Why Alternative Fuels? As the cost of conventional fuels goes up, the interest in other fuel sources increase In some cases, alternative.
Higher Chemistry Unit 2(a) Fuels. Petrol The gasoline fraction of crude oil is the main source of petrol. The gasoline fraction is obtained by the fractional.
Combustion Reactions. What is combustion? a very rapid reaction of a substance with oxygen to produce compounds called oxides. FUEL + OXYGEN OXIDE +
Powerpoint Templates Page 1 رسول خدا: همانا امام حسین(علیه السلام) چراغ هدایت و کشتی نجات است.
Alternative fuels Is there life after petroleum?.
KS3 Chemistry H2 – Energy from chemical reactions 8th January 2007.
Noadswood Science, Biofuels To understand how biofuels are produced Wednesday, September 09, 2015.
Natural Resources. FOSSIL FUELS –Take millions of years to form –Form from ancient decaying organic/living material –three types: coal (hydrocarbon rock)
Renewable energies: biomass. Biofeuls Biomass –Wood –Charcoal –Peat –Manure Biodiesel Ethanol.
1 of 37© Boardworks Ltd of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2009.
COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION. COMPLETE COMBUSTION In a combustion reaction, oxygen combines with another substance and releases energy in the form.
ENERGY FROM BIOMASS. Biomass Biomass energy is energy produced from burning wood or plant residue, or from organic wastes (manure, dung). Algae is most.
M. Rahman C1 TOPIC 5 1) Alkanes are… a)saturated hydrocarbon compounds b)used to make polymer chains c)toxic substances d)unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds.
Plant oils Vegetable oils as fuels. Fill her up! Which fuels are form renewable sources? Which fuels are not renewable? Oil Biodiesel Diesel Gas Petrol.
25/01/2016 Air Quality (OCR 21 st Century). 25/01/2016 The Earth’s Atmosphere Carbon dioxide, water vapourOxygenNitrogenNoble gases Present day atmosphere.
TOPIC 5 Fuels A Fuel is a substance that produces Energy when burned. A good fuel releases it’s energy over a longer period of time A reaction in which.
FOSSIL FUELS Section 1. Fossil Fuels A fuel is a substance that provides a form of energy. Such as heat, light, electricity, or motion. As a result.
Fueling America for 2009 and beyond. State of the Union? In his 2006 State of the Union speech, President George W. Bush called for U.S. citizens to cure.
Fuels A Fuel is a substance that produces Energy when burned. A good fuel releases its energy over a longer period of time A reaction in which energy.
ABDULAZEEZ MUHAMMAD ITEC211 BIOMASS. CONTENT BIOMASS WHERE DOES IT COME FROM ? TYPES OF BENEFICIAL BIOMASS METHODS OF CONVERSION ADVANTAGES AND.
Noadswood Science, Solutions To Fuel Problems To identify possible solutions to the impact of burning fuels Saturday, February 06, 2016.
Lesson 11 - Ethanol Learning Objectives: 1.Describe the two methods for producing ethanol. 2.Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Carbon Compounds 2a Int
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.