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Basic Problem Solving Tools Mark Pitman. Contents Topics/issues to be covered include: 1.Brainstorming 2.Cause and Effect diagrams 3.Pareto Charts 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Problem Solving Tools Mark Pitman. Contents Topics/issues to be covered include: 1.Brainstorming 2.Cause and Effect diagrams 3.Pareto Charts 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Problem Solving Tools Mark Pitman

2 Contents Topics/issues to be covered include: 1.Brainstorming 2.Cause and Effect diagrams 3.Pareto Charts 2

3 Objective of the training to ensure a full understanding of the problem solving tools: 1. what they do 2. where to use them 3. how to use them 3

4 The “Bigger Picture” – the problem solving process problem identification problem prevention solution implementation solution evaluation problem selection problem analysis Problem/Issue cause & effect Pareto diagrams cause & effect brainstorming 4

5 Brainstorming – why use it? CREATING BIGGER & BETTER IDEAS to establish a common method for a team to creatively and efficiently generate a high volume of ideas on any topic by creating a process that is free of criticism and judgement. 5

6 Brainstorming - what does it do? 1. encourages open thinking 2. gets all team members involved and enthusiastic 3. allows members to build on each others creativity 4. focused on one mission 5. high volume of creative ideas 6. encourages team work 7. encourages actions and commitment 6

7 Brainstorming - the steps involved structured brainstorming 1.question stated and agreed upon 2.go around the room, each member in turn gives an idea 3.write ideas on flipchart / writing surface 4.pass as ideas are exhausted 5.review ideas list for clarity and discard any duplicates 7

8 Brainstorming rules 1.everybody understands the question, issue or problem 2.let the mind freewheel 3.state that there are no right and wrong answers 4.challenge all practices 5.there may be many solutions 6.any member can pass at any time (structured) 7.encourage participation of all members 8.ideas are recorded with the same words of the speaker 9.keep the process moving and relatively short ( mins) 10.preserve subtle differences of ideas 8

9 brain storming - obstacles to creative thinking  thinking there is only one correct answer  fear of being wrong  fear of looking foolish  strong personalities dominating the session  failing to challenge the obvious  defining the problem correctly  not getting everybody involved - spark of ideas missing 9

10 Cause & Effect - find and cure causes NOT symptoms Why use a “fishbone diagram”? To allow a team to identify, explore and display, in increasing detail, all of the possible causes related to a problem or condition to discover its root cause(s) 10

11 Cause & Effect - what does it do ? 1.shows the relationship between the effect and all possible causes 2.categorises the cause of every problem / effect 3.encourages a team to focus on the content of the problem 4.creates a snapshot of collective knowledge and consensus of a team around a problem 5.focuses the team on causes, not symptoms 6.encourages team work 7.encourages actions and commitment 8.team members involved and enthusiastic 11

12 Cause & Effect – the major cause categories OR “4M” Manpower Machinery Materials Methods OR “4P” Personnel Plant Policies Procedures 12

13 Cause & Effect – using the cause categories be flexible production process machines (equipment) methods (how work is done) materials (components or raw materials) manpower (the human element) service processpolicies (higher - level decision rules) procedures (steps in a task) plant (equipment and space) people (the human element) both typesenvironment (buildings, logistics and space) measurement (calibration and data collection) are frequently used there is no perfect set or number of categories. make them fit the problem 13

14 Cause & Effect - the steps involved 1. agree on one simple statement that describes the selected problem 2. place the problem statement in the head on the right hand side of the writing surface 3. draw major cause category bones to the backbone of the fishbone diagram 4. add cause riblets to the major cause category bones 5. add further riblets to show relationships between causes 14

15 Cause & Effect exercise Effect take 15 mins to construct a detailed fishbone / cause and effect diagram using the categories you have just agreed. Cat. 1 Cat. 2 Cat. 3 Cat. 4 15

16 poor petrol mileage methods manpower materials use wrong gears poor hearing radio too loud can’t hear engine drive too fast impatience always late under-inflated tyres poor design difficult air valve stems fuel mix too rich mech. doesn’t have specs carburettor adjustment no record tyre pressure poor maintenance no awareness poor training “when in rome” poor driving habits wrong petrol type no owner’s manual don’t know recommended petrol type no oil change improper lubrication don’t know right oil wrong oil no owner’s manual £ £ machinery 16 Cause & Effect exercise

17 Pareto chart – focus on the key problems 17 Why use a Pareto? to focus efforts on the problems that offer the greatest potential for improvement by showing their relative frequency or size in a descending bar graph

18 Pareto chart - what does it do? 1.focuses team on causes that will have greatest impact if solved 2.based on proven Pareto principle: 20% of the sources cause 80% of any problem 3.displays relative importance of problems in simple, quickly interpreted, visual format 4.progress is highly visible, provides incentive to push for further improvement 5.helps prevent “shifting the problem” where the “solution” removes some causes but worsens others 18

19 P A R E T O # £ time cause / category 19 Pareto chart - what does it do?

20 Pareto chart - how to construct  decide on the problem you want to know more about  choose the causes of the problem  brainstorming  existing data  choose the most meaningful unit of measure  frequency  cost  hours  choose the time period of the study  design the check sheet  gather the necessary data using the check sheet  real time  historical 20

21 Pareto chart - rules  be prepared to use different units of measurement  data is collected over a sufficient period to be sure the data represent “typical” results during a “typical” cycle of the business  agree all definitions used - causes  check sheets are easiest method for collecting data  include source, location and time period covered 21

22 Summary – the problem solving process problem identification problem prevention solution implementation solution evaluation problem selection problem analysis Problem/Issue cause & effect pareto diagrams cause & effect brainstorming 22

23 Finally! Thank you for your time. Do you have any questions? 23


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