Presentation on theme: "3 英语的名词. 名词是英语的一种重要词类。 名词作为定语的三种结构 使用名词所有格 My sister’s car, the customer’s complaint 名词用作定语 A computer factory, a war film, the table leg 介词词组用作定语 The."— Presentation transcript:
名词是英语的一种重要词类。 名词作为定语的三种结构 使用名词所有格 My sister’s car, the customer’s complaint 名词用作定语 A computer factory, a war film, the table leg 介词词组用作定语 The top of the page, a feeling of disappointment A book on English learning
A table leg, *a table’s leg My brother’s house, * the house of my brother The earth’s gravity, the gravity of the earth A man from London, a London man A box of matches, a matchbox
所有格和作为定语的名词 my father’s house, a ring-finger, a race-horse, a horse-race ’s 所有格的意义 A has b John’s bicycle, my father’s headache, a butcher’s shop A does sth to/with b The girl’s story, a spider’s web, the general’ letter A women’s college, a men’s lavatory, boy’s socks
A does b The government’s decision, the volcano’s eruption, the train’s arrival, a baby’s smile The prisoner’s release, the President’s assassination （时间）： today’s news, a night’s sleep, two days’ journey, ten minutes’ walk A ten-minute walk, a five-day week N+n 结构： b does sth to a, b produces a, b goes to a, b is in/from/for/with/about… a A book case, an oil well, a garden chair, the airport bus
Please don’t put the dog’s food under the kitchen table, Lucy. Dog food costs near as much as steak. Of 结构：可替换 ’s 所有格，但并非完全如此 The arrival of the train, the train’s arrival The plan’s importance, the importance of the plan 但是 The cost of the roof, *the roof’s cost
’s 用来分类 The dog’s meat, dog meat 但是， a bird’s nest, Cow’s milk, goat cheese Lamb’s wool, calf skin 冠词和限定词的所指： That man’s house That bird’s nest
Of 结构 名词作定语描写常见的事物 Road sign, postman, an insurance man ( 一个概念） Signs of improvement, signs of damage 谈论具体实例时 Leg muscles, the muscles of my right leg A tree-trunk, the trunk of the old pear tree 谈论装了东西的容器时 A coffee-cup, a cup of coffee A petrol can, a can of petrol
Of 结构 常与 piece, bit, slice, lump 等表示数量的词连用 A piece of paper, a slice of cake, a bunch of flowers, a pinch of salt 用于带 back, front, side, top, bottom, edge, middle, end, inside, outside 等词的结构 The back of the bus, the edge of the paper, the middle of the night, the top of the mountain, the outside of the box, the end of the film 用于描写事物、人特征的词组 A woman of medium height, a man of great courage, a building of no architectural value, a decision of great importance
Of 结构 用于地名 The city of London, the village of Lower Garsfield, the County of Durbam
’s 结构 Produced by/from animals Sheep’s wool, a bird’s egg, cow’s milk The animal is killed to provide something: chicken soup, a lamb chop Parts of animals’ bodies whether the animal is living or dead: a sheep’s heart, a frog’s leg Used by Women’s magazines, a children’s hospital, a bird’s nest 但是在 user does not control what is happening 时： baby clothes, a birdcage, baby-food A car engine usually lasts for about miles. That car’s engine is making a funny noise.
’s 结构 表示时间 The nine o’clock news, Sunday paper What did you think of last Sunday’s match?
单数还是复数？ 有些单数的词可与复数动词和代词连用。 The team are playing wonderfully, aren’t they? My family have decided to move to Florida. Police, people, cattle (look singular) 有些复数的表达式可与单数动词和代词连用。 Five pounds doesn’t buy as much as it used to. News, a series, a crossroads (look plural) The company's headquarters is based in London.
A number of my friends ___ (think) I should take a holiday. A group of us ___ (have) decided to hire a boat and travel through Holland by canal. The majority of the damage __ (be) easy to repair. The majority of criminals ___ (be) non-violent. More than one person ___ (be) going to lose his job. Fish and chips ___ (be) getting expensive. War and peace is the longest book I’ve ever read.
We want to stay for another ten days. We’ll need an extra ten dollars. He’s been waiting for a good twenty-five minutes. I go to Ireland every six weeks.
They’ve got so much money. They their house is full of, it’s worth two hundred and fifty thousand. Their house in Sulfolk got to be worth about two hundred thousand. They’re buying a house this year in France. My cousin works at Jones … does designs. She’s a designer, she’s very famous. She designs a lot of clothes for Lord Browning. Her best friend is Princess Margaret.
Four carefully chosen plants in the centre row of the maintenance plot are placed under muslin bags to prevent cross-pollination. When flowering is over the bags are removed and the plants allowed to ripen normally. These four plants are the insurance against accidental loss of the pure line.
影响回指手段使用的一个因素是回指距离。 指示代词 人称代词 指示代词＋同义词 指示代词＋重复的名词 The + 同义词 The + 重复的名词
A school girl yesterday dropped a legal bid to divorce her parents after she made up with her mother. The 14-year-old had asked the High Court to rule that she could live with her boyfriend’s family. The deal was struck after talks between lawyers and Official Solicitor David Venables. But it is not yet known whether the teenager is returning to her mother or remaining with her 18- year-old boyfriend’s family.
In 1882 H. Weber gave a set of postulates for abstract groups of finite order. These postulates are essentially those in use today. Two older directions taken in the 19 th century by the theory of groups should perhaps be mentioned. One is Dyck’s concentration on systems of generators for a group, and on relations satisfied by these generators.
Types of nouns The basic structure of noun-headed phrases Determiner+premodifier+head+postmodifier A boat, the race, Australia’s best-known businessman and yachtsman The rules of the race, a long way to go
Nouns can be broadly grouped into a small number of classes which differ in meaning and grammatical behaviour. common, proper countable, uncountable
不同类型名词的使用反映了事物概念化的不同方式。 Well we’ve got an oak out the front. The daughter had to bring in logs of oak and pine. On May 29, a window was broken by a stone. In the flat landscape of scrub and stone there was nowhere one could hide.
名词单、复数的使用 看作单个事物，还是看作物质或材料？ The rattling carriage was full of rucksakes and hikers, and black- dressed Greek ladies with chickens. Would you like some chicken for dinner? Tests on naturally contaminated eggs show multiplication cannot occur in an intact egg, not even in the yolk. She cooked me egg and chips and sat by me while I ate. There is no way to tell how old a rock is merely by looking at its minerals. Rock is defined as the inorganic mineral covering the earth’s surface.
不可数名词可作可数名词用 Plant beverages include tea, coffee, wine, alcoholic drinks, intoxicants, and sweet beverages. Six teas please. We learned to eat brown rice and yogurt and to tolerate kasha and odd-tasting teas. It was in fact impossible to be strenuously diligent after one of Mrs Sutton’s teas. I think I would like some wine though. That was only on forty nine a bottle. Which is cheap cos a lot of non-alcoholic wines are expensive.
抽象名词也可有可数用法 It pulls together a series of wide-ranging recommendations for business, transport and education. Although she was a girl she wanted an education. They had received kindness, thoughts and good wishes from total strangers. It would be a “cruel kindness” to uphold the county court order.
复数不可数（不因数的变化而变化） She wears those jigsaw-type clothes, trousers usually. She reached for the scissors. Letters of thanks have been flooding into our office. 与 pair 连用，可数 A pair of trousers, a pair of scissors
专有名词 人名、地名、物体名、机构名、节假日等 与定冠词连用的专有名词： 复数的地名： the Bahamas, the Great Smoky Mountains 江、河、海、洋、运河等地名： the Pacific, the Panama Canal 图书馆、戏院、博物馆、旅馆等： the Metropolitan Museum, the Library of Congress 某些报纸、杂志的： The Times, The Guardian
集体名词 Army, audience, board, committee, crew, family, jury, staff, team They elected a leader and a committee to represent the three urban communities where they lived. 官方机构和组织的名称： the Air Force, the BBC, the Senate, the United Nations, British Rail, NBC, Congress, Parliament The administration is an adept player and so is Congress. The traditional view is that Parliament has no power to bind it successors. Liverpool stayed on long without kicking a ball.
Collocations of collectives Bunch of, group of, set of, gang of, batch of, series of, herd of, crowd of Batch ofCakes, cards, blood tests, messages, pigs Bunch ofIdiots, thieves, roses, bananas, grapes Crowd ofFans, spectators, shoppers Gang ofBandits, drunken youths Herd ofCows, deer, elephants Series ofAccidents, assertions, events, tests Set ofAssumptions, characteristics, conditions
The Indefinite Article 用于非特指的场合 I’m looking for a millionaire, she says, but I don’t see many around. I feel terrible. I need a friend. 用于某类人或事物 My husband is a doctor. A doctor is not better than his patient.
The Zero Article 与不可数名词和复数可数名词连用 We have wine on the table, drink it. Two of his cousins are teachers, his sister is a teacher. Inside the house Mr Summers found a family of cats shut in the bathroom. 三餐 Are they going out for dinner or something? Bye bye, dear, thanks for the lunch. 机构（重点不在机构而不是某个实体） They are in hospital, badly injured. We were at university together.
The church serves a population of The university has increased the number of students. 交通 / 通讯工具 Go by bus/car/coach/plane/sea/taxi Travel by air/car/rail/horse Send by mail/ 日子 Tomorrow at dawn we’ll begin our journey. It’s not safe to walk the streets at night. But: She sat and waited for the dawn./He woke up again in the middle of the night.
日期、月份、季节 It was on the radio on Sunday. The UN team spent three weeks visiting the camps in September. When winter comes in 12 weeks, they will freeze. But Most of the winter I never see daylight. That was the Sunday before we moved.
平行结构 He travelled from country to country. She has had to make the difficult transition from child to adult star. Thankfully, it has turned out all right from mother to baby. 零块语：出现在新闻标题、标签、告示等 Oldest Living Person Marks 127th Birthday 呼语 I’ll see you later, mate. Teacher! Teacher! Teacher! Do you want that, baby?
统称 Beer is, quite rightly, Britain’s favorite Friday night drink. In Ghana coconut wine is not as popular and common as palm wine. 可数名词可用零冠词和复数 Horses are intelligent animals. 也可用定冠词 / 不定冠词＋单数（较不常见） A doctor is not better than his patient. The reader will be shocked by this.
Quantifiers All money, all (of) the money Some money, some of the money Much money, much of the money All girls, all (of) the girls Some girls, some of the girls Many girls, many of the girls
全包括 I’m just fascinated by all those things. Don’t go to that awful man and spend all that money. Both amendments were defeated. Each 强调个体，可用于指两者的场合； every 强调群体中 的一分子，不能用于指两者的场合。 The book is divided into three parts. Each part consists of chapters grouped together according to their relation to the major concepts of the Earth’s dynamics. Every minute of every day, hundreds of millions of tonnes of coal are burned.
大量 Many 和 much 常用于否定句 There weren’t many people there. The girl wasn’t paying much attention. A great/good many 与复数可数名词连用， a great/good deal of 与不可数名词连用。 Plenty of, a lot of 和 lots of 多 用于口语。 He’s had a lot of trouble.
中等数量 Insurance shares produced some excitement. Some performances will be presented. 但是 That is some horse. ( 赞许） Some 18 percent of managing directors secured pay increases of over 20 per cent. ( 大约 )
少量 A few, few, several 与可数名词连用， a little 与不可数名词连 用。 A few, a little 相当于 some, few, little 表示比预计的少。 With a little care he had no difficulty whatever in putting his glass back on the table. Why do you take so little care? There were a few people sitting at the table in the back. Though it was not late there were few people about.
任意量、无 There aren’t any women. Got any money? Either or both chromosomes( 染色体 ) may divide. No method for the precise manipulation of the embryo in utero has been divised. Neither method is entirely satisfactory.
用作复数的名词 Where did you steal those pants? Pyjamas, shorts, glasses I can hear him on the stairs. Flight of steps/stairs The surroundings were beautiful and the food delicious. Our goods are second to none in the world market. The minutes of the last meeting were approved.
用作单数的名词 My dear Alice, the symptoms of love are as clear as those of measles. This news is brilliant.