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CARBON Structure, Bonds and Molecules. HYDROCARBONS Compounds that contain the elements HYDROGEN AND CARBON.

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Presentation on theme: "CARBON Structure, Bonds and Molecules. HYDROCARBONS Compounds that contain the elements HYDROGEN AND CARBON."— Presentation transcript:

1 CARBON Structure, Bonds and Molecules

2 HYDROCARBONS Compounds that contain the elements HYDROGEN AND CARBON

3 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS As you add more carbon to the hydrocarbon, the molecule becomes heavier and properties change.

4 Name Molecular Formula Molecular Mass Melting Point ( o C) Boiling Point ( o C) StateDensity Uses methaneCH gas natural gas (fuel) ethaneC2H6C2H gas natural gas (fuel) propaneC3H8C3H gas Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), bottled gas (fuel) butaneC 4 H gas liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), cigarette lighters (fuel) pentaneC 5 H liquid0.626 petrol (fuel) hexaneC 6 H liquid0.659 petrol (fuel) decaneC 10 H liquid0.730 petrol (fuel) hexadecaneC 16 H liquid0.775 diesel fuel & heating oil eicosaneC 20 H solid

5 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS How do we separate the different weights so we can use them? Fractional distillation. VIDEO – REAL PLAYER

6 How do we use MANY hydrocarbons? COMBUSTION Burning coal:C + O2  CO2 Burning natural gas:CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O Burning gasoline:2C8H O2  16CO2 + 18H20 Incomplete combustion creates CO (carbon monoxide) instead of CO2 2CH4 + 3O2  2CO + 4H2O Organic Molecules: Hydrocarbons

7 ALL COMPLETE combustion creates CO 2, which makes rain slightly acidic CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 (Carbonic acid) BUT, often times fossil fuels contain NITROGEN AND SULFUR. When they are burned, they combine with water and create ACID RAIN. Combustion of gasoline creates NO 2 NO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 NO 3 (Nitric acid) Combustion of coal creates SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4 (Sulfuric acid)

8 Polymers Carbon-based compounds OTHER USES OF CARBON-BASED COMPOUNDS

9 Polymers Carbon-based compounds 1. TAKE A GUESS (INFER): How does JELLO (a powdery, carbon-based compound) become a solid? How does JELLO (a powdery, carbon-based compound) become a solid? How does your body produce hair, muscle and skin? How does your body produce hair, muscle and skin? How can they make a solid plastic out of liquid petroleum, or rubber out of liquid sap? How can they make a solid plastic out of liquid petroleum, or rubber out of liquid sap?

10 MOLECULES OF LIFE We are all CBLF’s (carbon-based life forms) CARBON CAN FORM AN INCREDIBLE VARIETY OF MOLECULES!!! CARBON CAN FORM AN INCREDIBLE VARIETY OF MOLECULES!!!

11 BASIC STRUCTURAL FEATURES: A. MULTIPLE BONDS SINGLE BONDS: -ane DOUBLE BONDS: - ene TRIPLE BONDS: -yne

12 B. STRAIGHT OR BRANCHED CHAINS C. ISOMERS

13 D. RINGS - Aromatics Each corner represents a carbon atom. Ring size can vary from three to eight.

14 POLYMERS Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains to form a variety of structures, including fossil fuels such as coal, synthetic polymers such as plastics, and the large molecules of life, such as proteins and lipids. Molecular structure of Coal Lipid Polyethylen e

15 All of this allows Carbon to create: GIANT MOLECULES called POLYMERS 100’s to 1000’s of smaller molecules joined together. Polymers ARE CHAINS OF Monomers joined together.

16 monome r polyme r

17 POLYMERS (the whole train) are made out of MONOMERS (individual cars of the train) joined together.

18 Polymers Polymerization: When carbon molecules combine into long chains. HOW: This happens when a carbon to carbon double bond in a monomer is broken and new single bonds are formed creating a polymer.

19 Polymers Polymerization of polypropylene (propene).

20 Polymers Polymerization: (of polyethylene)

21 Polymers Polymerization: (of nylon)

22 Polymers Three main shapes of polymers are formed: A. S TRAIGHT CHAINS (Linear) B. B RANCHED CHAINS C. C ROSS-LINKED CHAINS

23 Polymers NOT ALL POLYMER FORMING REACTIONS CAN GO BY THEMSELVES. Catalyst: A chemical substance that STARTS or INCREASES the rate of a reaction without being used in the polymer.

24 Polymers Catalyst: A chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed.

25 Carbon Polymers - Review 1. P olymers are carbon atoms bonded to one another in straight, branched or cross-linked chains 2. 3 TYPES carbon-based compounds: fossil fuels, synthetic polymers, and biopolymers 3. P olymers are formed through a process called polymerization 4. C atalyst: STARTS or INCREASES the rate of the reaction without being used up

26 Carbon Polymers - Journal 1. Define “polymer”. Define “monomer”. 2. Name the 3 main types of carbon-based compounds and give an example of each 3. Draw the structural formula for the monomer “ethylene” and part of the structural formula for the polymer “polyethylene” 4. Define polymerization 5. What is a “Catalyst”? (use your resources)

27 Carbon Polymers - Journal 1. W rite down the name, and some of the properties of the plastic on your desk. 2. Q uick draw an image of both the monomer and polymer of ethylene. 3. R e-Read the Polymer Lab Sheet from the back of the room. 4. C hoose which test (tensile, abrasion, puncture) that you would want to run, and begin filling out the back of the sheet.


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