Presentation on theme: "Structure , Bonds and Molecules"— Presentation transcript:
1 Structure , Bonds and Molecules CARBONStructure , Bonds and Molecules
2 HYDROCARBONSCompounds that contain the elements HYDROGEN AND CARBON
3 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS As you add more carbon to the hydrocarbon, the molecule becomes heavier and properties change.
4 Uses methane CH4 16 -182 -162 gas ethane C2H6 30 -183 -88.6 propane NameMolecular FormulaMolecular MassMelting Point (oC)Boiling Point (oC)StateDensityUsesmethaneCH416-182-162gasnatural gas (fuel)ethaneC2H630-183-88.6propaneC3H844-188-42.1Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), bottled gas (fuel)butaneC4H1058-138-0.5liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), cigarette lighters (fuel)pentaneC5H1272-13036.1liquid0.626petrol (fuel)hexaneC6H1486-95.368.70.659decaneC10H22142-301740.730hexadecaneC16H3422618.52880.775diesel fuel & heating oileicosaneC20H4228236343solid
5 Organic Molecules: HYDROCARBONS How do we separate the different weights so we can use them?Fractional distillation.VIDEO – REAL PLAYER
6 Organic Molecules: Hydrocarbons How do we use MANY hydrocarbons? COMBUSTIONBurning coal: C + O2 CO2Burning natural gas: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2OBurning gasoline: 2C8H O2 16CO2 + 18H20Incomplete combustion creates CO (carbon monoxide) instead of CO22CH4 + 3O2 2CO + 4H2O
7 Organic Molecules: Hydrocarbons ALL COMPLETE combustion creates CO2, which makes rain slightly acidicCO2 + H2O H2CO3 (Carbonic acid)BUT, often times fossil fuels contain NITROGEN AND SULFUR.When they are burned, they combine with water and create ACID RAIN.Combustion of gasoline creates NO2NO2 + H2O H2NO3 (Nitric acid)Combustion of coal creates SO3SO3 + H2O H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)
8 Carbon-based compounds OTHER USES OFCARBON-BASED COMPOUNDSPolymersCarbon-based compounds
9 Polymers Carbon-based compounds TAKE A GUESS (INFER): How does JELLO (a powdery, carbon-based compound) become a solid?How does your body produce hair, muscle and skin?How can they make a solid plastic out of liquid petroleum, or rubber out of liquid sap?
10 MOLECULES OF LIFE We are all CBLF’s (carbon-based life forms) CARBON CAN FORM AN INCREDIBLE VARIETY OF MOLECULES!!!
13 D. RINGS - Aromatics Each corner represents a carbon atom. Ring size can vary from three to eight.
14 POLYMERS Polyethylene Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains to form a variety of structures, including fossil fuels such as coal, synthetic polymers such as plastics, and the large molecules of life, such as proteins and lipids.LipidMolecular structure of Coal
15 All of this allows Carbon to create: GIANT MOLECULES called POLYMERS 100’s to 1000’s of smaller molecules joined together.Polymers ARE CHAINS OF Monomers joined together.
17 POLYMERS (the whole train) are made out of MONOMERS (individual cars of the train) joined together.
18 PolymersPolymerization: When carbon molecules combine into long chains.HOW: This happens when a carbon to carbon double bond in a monomer is broken and new single bonds are formed creating a polymer.
19 PolymersPolymerization of polypropylene (propene).
22 Polymers Three main shapes of polymers are formed: STRAIGHT CHAINS (Linear)BRANCHED CHAINSCROSS-LINKED CHAINS
23 Polymers NOT ALL POLYMER FORMING REACTIONS CAN GO BY THEMSELVES. Catalyst: A chemical substance that STARTS or INCREASES the rate of a reaction without being used in the polymer.
24 PolymersCatalyst: A chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed.
25 Carbon Polymers - Review Polymers are carbon atoms bonded to one another in straight, branched or cross-linked chains3 TYPES carbon-based compounds: fossil fuels, synthetic polymers, and biopolymersPolymers are formed through a process called polymerizationCatalyst: STARTS or INCREASES the rate of the reaction without being used up
26 Carbon Polymers - Journal Define “polymer”. Define “monomer”.Name the 3 main types of carbon-based compounds and give an example of eachDraw the structural formula for the monomer “ethylene” and part of the structural formula for the polymer “polyethylene”Define polymerizationWhat is a “Catalyst”? (use your resources)
27 Carbon Polymers - Journal Write down the name, and some of the properties of the plastic on your desk.Quick draw an image of both the monomer and polymer of ethylene.Re-Read the Polymer Lab Sheet from the back of the room.Choose which test (tensile, abrasion, puncture) that you would want to run, and begin filling out the back of the sheet.