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Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic Department of Agriculture of the State of Georgia AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE.

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Presentation on theme: "Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic Department of Agriculture of the State of Georgia AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic Department of Agriculture of the State of Georgia AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Current state and outlook of sustainable development of biogenic fuels in the Czech Republic Petr Jevič Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i. Prague (RIAE) Association for Biodiesel Production, Prague (SVB) 9 October, 2009 Prague, 2009 1

2 RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING (RIAE) Institute main activity: Research of technological systems for production of agricultural focused to the technological, technical, construction, energetics, ecological, economical and organization problems, consulting and advisory services. Technological systems for production agriculture division Division of energetics and logistics of technological systems and biomass utilization for non-food purposes Division of the economics of agricultural technological systems Division of agricultural technological systems ecology Division of external and internal service Prague, 2009 2 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA

3 THE ASSOCIATION FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION (SVB) Established on 11.12.1990 following the contract according to § 366a/ of the Commercial Code of the Czech Republic. Activities in the field of rape complete processing support or other oil-bearing crops, used vegetable oils and fats into technical products and feed components. Enforcing of stipulated partial aims, joint creation of technical, economical and legislative conditions and their initiation not only in the production and processing sphere, but also in the sphere of production utilization. Promotion, information service, consultancy, intermediary and coordination activity, provision of basic professional international cooperation Ensurance of special gestion towards central State administration and cooperation with concerned interest associations. Prague, 2009 3

4 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 4 Brief introduction – history, present and future estimation of the biodiesel in the Czech Republic 1988 – first proposal of rapeseed oil utilization in the sphere of oleochemistry (RIAE Prague) 1990 – 1998 – Oleoprogram, production subsidies of B30 – zero excise tax 1.1.1999 – 31.3.2000 – direct subventions of RME production 1.4.2000 – 31.12.2000 – preferential VAT of B30 towards diesel and subventions of FAME production 1.1.2001 – 30.4.2004 – B30 had reduced excise tax rate (69 % of the diesel tax rate), stabilization of rapeseed price on the market, „boom“ of biodiesel production 1.5.2004 – 30.6.2005 – ending of the subsidies, entrance into EU, necessity of subsidies notification 1.7.2005 – 31.12.2006 – B30 – reduced excise tax 6866 CZK/1000 l and subsidies for RME producers (only for domestic market consumption) 1.1.2007 – 31.12.2007 – B100 – zero excise tax, ending of B30 sales (tax conditions) 1.9.2007 – 31.12.2008 – mandatory blending min. 2% V/V 1.1.2009 – mandatory blending min. 4.5% V/V 1.1.2010 – estimation of mandatory blending min. 6.3% V/V (?)

5 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 5 Official beginnings of the program „Bioethanol“: Government Decrees No. 125 of 14 February 1996 and No. 420 of 17 June 1998 start the utilization of biodegradable fraction of product waste and residues from agriculture Amendment of the Act on spirit and excise taxes 1 January 2008 – mandatory blending min. 2% V/V 1 January 2009 – mandatory blending min. 3.5% V/V 1 January 2010 – mandatory blending min. 4.5% V/V (?) Implementation of the program „Bioethanol“ in the Czech Republic

6 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 6 Legislative frame – past and present Act on Air Protection No. 86/2002 amended in 2007 (Act No. 180) Since January 1, 2008 in amount of 2% V/V of total amount of the motor petrol fuels blended in the motor petrol Since September 1, 2007 in amount of 2% V/V of total amount of the motor diesel blended in the motor diesel Since January 1, 2009 in amount of 3.5% V/V of total amount of the motor petrol fuels blended in the motor petrol Since January 1, 2009 in amount of 4.5% V/V of total amount of the motor diesel blended in the motor diesel

7 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 7 Legislative frame – past and present Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republicsupport the proposal of Association for Biodiesel Production and Union of Distilleries of the Czech Republic for the increase of minimal share of biofuels since January 1, 2010: bioethanol 4,5% V/V biodiesel 6,3% V/V

8 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 8 Legislative frame – past and present Act on Excise Tax No. 353/2003 amended in 2006, 2007 and 2008 (expectation of a new amendment in 2009) Since January 1, up to December 31, 2007 was i force zero excise tax for Biodiesel B100 Since January 1, 2008 was full rate of excise tax for Biodiesel B100 9950 CZK/1000 litres Since October 1, 2009 there was approved the tax support of biofuels (automotive fuels) FAME (B100), Diesel fuel blends containing Fatty acid methyl esters – B30, Ethanol automotive fuel – E85, Ethanol for compression ignition engines (diesel engines) – E95, Biogas for positive (spark) ignition engines, Fuels for vegetable oil compatible combustion engines – Fuel from rapeseed oil

9 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 9 Summary – domestic production, trade, stock change and brutto consumption biofuels in the CR Bioethanol 2005 178 tonsblending component for petrol 2006 258 tons blending component for petrol 1532 tons ETBE production 200720082009, January - August Domestic production26 509 tons60 236 tons51 317 tons Import 0 tons20 404 tons23 608 tons Export17 027 tons31 908 tons26 020 tons Stock change +/-+9 195 tons+1 989 tons+1 339 tons Brutto consumption 287 tons50 721 tons50 244 tons

10 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 6 CR bioethanol production capacities as of December 2008 370 mln litres/yearcca 292 000 tons/year Cross consumption and deliveries of motor petrol 2 000 000 tons 3.5% V/V110 mln litres/year cca 87 000 tons/year 5.75% V/V185 mln litres/yearcca 146 000 tons/year Source: Union of Distilleries of the CR

11 Prague, 2009 11 Year19921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008 Domestic Production 3 4005 6009 20011 80019 30027 60015 70030 63067 20071100104 400113 50085 144126 894110 15281 80675 173 Brutto consumpt 3 4005 60010 0017 80024 80037 50041 42050 80070 32851600 73 140 70 06035 8503 16920 22936 94687 386 Import1 6008 4008 70011 40025 80020 2003 2002 90040603 1207 81122 9738 33943 657 Export2 4003 2001 50080307222400 31 300 43 50052 414131 536110 92653 57233 588 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Summary – domestic production, trade, stock change and brutto consumption biofuels in the CR Biodiesel in the Czech Republic Source: SVB&VÚZT

12 Sales of B30 in Czech Republic in 1992 - 2008 Prague, 2009 12 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Biodiesel B30 (mixture 69% of diesel and 31% of biodiesel according to standard ČSN EN 65 6508

13 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 6 Summary – domestic production, trade, stock change and brutto consumption biofuels in the CR Biodiesel (FAME, FARME) - 2009, January – August Domestic production99 570 tons Import 5 325 tons Export18 510 tons Stock change +/-+1 490 tons Brutto consumption84 895 tons CR biodiesel production capacity 420 000 tons/year Major biodiesel producers: Agropodnik Jihlava 70 000 tons/year Oleochemical Liberec 70 000 tons/year Preol Lovosice100 000 tons/year Oleofin Ústí/Labem139 000 tons/year Primagra Milín 35 000 tons/year

14 Consumptiom of Diesel and Biodiesel – history and estimation Prague, 2009 14 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA

15 Fuels and biofuels - storage and distribution network in the Czech Republic AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 15

16 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 16 Biofuels standardization Biofuels as well as conventional motor fuels have to reach a high minimum level to be acceptable for car manufacturers and combustion motors. Biofuels have to meet requirements for high quality and to be prepared for developing according to automotive and motor technique needs. Directive of the EU 2009/30/EC, April 2009 as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and the introduction of a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of read transport fuels and amending council Directive 1999/32/EC, as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/ECC

17 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 17 Current CR and European - Fuel and biofuel standards Petrol & Bioethanol ČSN EN 228 Unleaded petrol bioethanol contentmax. 5% V/V extension of EN 228 to E10max. 10% V/V bioethanol ČSN EN 15293 Ethanol automotive fuel E85 ČSN 65 6513 Ethanol for compression ignition engines (diesel engines) E95

18 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 18 Diesel fuel & Biodiesel ČSN EN 590 – Diesel (April 2009) FAME content max. 7% oxidation stability test methods addition EN 15751, min. 20 h. recommended use of stabilisers (equiv. to 1,000 mg BHT/kg) extension of EN 590 to B10 (max. 10% V/V FAME) ČSN EN 14214 – Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines (June 2009) reduction of phosphorus content to 4 mg/kg flash point acc. to Pensky-Martens included limit reduced to 101 oC Na- and K-determination acc. to EN 14538 incorporated – 5,0 mg/kg suspension of cold flow requirements for FAME used as blend component recommended use of stabilising additives Current CR and European - Fuel and biofuel standards

19 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 19 ČSN 65 6508 Diesel fuel blends containing Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) B30 (2009) ČSN 65 6516 Fuels for vegetable oil compatible combustion engines (2008) ČSN 65 6514 Biogas for positive (spark) ignition engines (2008) Current CR and European - Fuel and biofuel standards

20 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 20 Sustainability is key for biofuel Industry Everyone is talking about sustainability – sustainable energy, sustainable food, sustainable economy. It makes sense. We are living large, and if we could only sustain our current way of life, how great would that be? CO 2 balance = competitive factor! Engine technology as limit

21 Prague, 2009 21 The biofuels policy define certain criteria for a sustainable production of biofuel feedstock EU Renewable Directive 2009/28/EC, April 2009 Requirements on the sustainable production of the used biomass feedstock Biofuels shall not be made from raw material obtained from land with: 1. High carbon stock i.e. wetlands and continuously forested areas with trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of more than 30%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ, 2. Recognized biodiversity value The feedstock production has to follow the standards of cross compliance or comparable and accepted standardss Requirements on the minimum GHG mitigation potential At least 35% GHG savings compared to fossil based fuels since 2013, 50% since 2017, 60% since 2018. AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA

22 Prague, 2009 22 Second generation biofuels and synthetic fuels At present, BTL (biomass to liquid) fuels are the subject of various R & D projects and 2nd generation biofuels. Despite all the excitement in the media about next generation biofuels, it is self-evident that we are at the very early stages of the development process. Politicians around the world are acknowledging the barriers to entry and have brought forward a number of incentives to overcome them.

23 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 23 The Energy Act of 2007 in the United States is a prime example of this. This is the most explicit growth related program for next generation biofuels there currently is. As early as 2010, the US Congress has provided for the distribution of 100 mln gallons of cellulosic alcohol in the market. The share of cellulosic ethanol is set to rise at an accelerating rate to reach 16 bln gallons (60 bln litres, 48 mln tonnes) of fuels by 2022. By then, production of cellulosic alcohol will be greater than the output of the corn ethanol industry, which has been capped a 15 bln gallons. Second generation biofuels and synthetic fuels

24 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 24 The EU renewable fuels directive has a similar focus. Next generation biofuels have the advantage of more significat greenhouse gas savings and therefore the Commissions proposal foresees that nextgen biofuels will count double against the 2020 production target. Another key policy component is the development of biorefinering. Second generation biofuels and synthetic fuels

25 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 25 Next generation biofuels Research activities of the Czech Republic in this sphere are not comprehensive, but for the time being there are aimed at the particular operations of technological process: Feedstock cultivation Hydro-treatment of vegetable oils Lignocellulose utilisation Biobuthanol Thermal depolymerization Flash pyrolysis Hydrotreating, hydroprocessing However, this process can be improved considerably by means of international cooperation and exchange of information.

26 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 26 B100 – powered jet completes flight Green Flight International successfully completed a biodiesel-powered transcontinental flight across the United States on Nov. 1. Beginning in Reno, New., and concluding in Leesburg, Fla., the flight lasted 11 hours and 13 minutes, reaching altitudes of 13,000 to 17,000 feet. Source: Biodiesel Magazine, January, 2009 According to Douglas Rodante, Green Flight chief executive officer, 1,776 miles of the flight were fueled by B100. The remaining 710 miles of the flight were powered by a mixture of 50 percent biodiesel and 50 percent jet fuel. A 1968 L29 Delphin, a single engine military jet aircraft built in Czechoslovakia, was used to complete the flight. „We didn`t have any problems with cold flow properties in this aircraft because of the design,“ Rodante said. Engine oil runs through an area surrounding the fuel filter, heating the fuel going through the filter. The heated fuel is circulated back through the fuel tanks. „Our fuel temperature on the flight was 27 degree Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) and that was up and over 17,000 feed,“ he said. According to Rodante, only slight engine adjustments had to be made in order to run the L29 Delphin on B100. „If we used a B20 blend in a modern aircraft, I don`t think there would be any modifications that need to be done,“ he said.

27 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA Prague, 2009 27 Conclusion Biodiesel, bioethanol and in future BTL are the key alternatives for oil, gas and coal to reduce CO 2 in transport sector. Feedstock availability, energy efficiency and land use are the drivers towards BTL technologies. BTL will complete the overall fuel mix together with 1st generation biofuels in future.

28 Conclusion Synergies among agricultural enterprises, biodiesel producers and refineries Lowering of GHG emissions in the long-term perspective in accordance with criteria of sustainability for biomass growing and biofuels production Prague, 2009 28 AGRICULTURE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND IN THE USA – STATE OF GEORGIA

29 Prague, 2009 29 Thanks for your attention. Contact Petr Jevič Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i. Prague Association for Biodiesel Production, Prague Drnovská 507, 161 01 Prague 6 tel.: +420-233022302, e-mail: petr.jevic@vuzt.cz


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