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AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA INITIATIVES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Prashant Gargava Senior Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi – 110.

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Presentation on theme: "AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA INITIATIVES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Prashant Gargava Senior Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi – 110."— Presentation transcript:

1 AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA INITIATIVES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Prashant Gargava Senior Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi – 110 032 (Email: (Web: INDIA-CALIFORNIA AIR MITIGATION PROGRAM (ICAMP) – PROJECT MEETING, OAKLAND, USA, OCTOBER 21 – 23, 2013

2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Actions o What have been done? – Actions Status o What have been achieved? – Status Identifying Gaps o Are we on the right track? – Identifying Gaps Way Forward o What more need to be done? – Way Forward INITIATIVES CHALLENGES

3 REGULATORY PROVISIONS o Institutional Mechanism: MoEF, CPCB, SPCB o Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 o Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 o Revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards – 2009  Rationale – Health consideration primary focus, Not based on land use, SPM omitted, 12 parameters including some of HAPs INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL o Mandatory Environmental Clearance – Specified Projects; Central/State clearance based on type and size of projects o Use of cleaner fuel – Beneficiated coal, NG for Fertilizer Plants ACTIONS

4 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL o Emission Norms  Sector specific based on techno-economic considerations – over 75 industrial sectors  States can make it more stringent, if required o Promotion of Cleaner Technologies – DCDA process for H 2 SO 4 plants, Membrane Cell for caustic soda plants o Environmental audit and statement o Environmental Surveillance o Identification of critically polluted areas based on Comprehensive Index (CEPI), and Implementation of action plans o CREP, ISO certification – voluntary initiative ACTIONS…..

5 VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL o Improved fuel quality – Bharat Stage IV in major cities, Bharat Stage – III in rest of the country o Alternate cleaner fuel (CNG/LPG) o Progressive emission norms for vehicles o Improvement in public transport system (Metro) o Phasing out of old commercial vehicles o Better traffic management – Restriction on goods vehicles during day time, Installation of time clocks at important crossings, Construction of more flyovers and subways and closing of T-Junctions, Regular information about traffic flow through radio ACTIONS…..

6 Norms Year of Implementation 1996 1998 (Cat. Convertor Norms) 1998 Bharat Stage I (Euro I) 1999 Bharat Stage II (Euro II) 2001 Bharat Stage III (Euro III) 2005 Bharat Stage IV (Euro IV) 2010 STRICTER NORMS FOR EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES ACTIONS…..

7 FUEL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS…..Norms Year of Implementation 0.5% S – Diesel1996 0.25% S – Diesel2000 0.05% S – Diesel2003 0.035% S – Diesel2005 0.005% S – Diesel2010 Unleaded Petrol2000

8 AIR QUALITY MONITORING o National Air Quality Monitoring Network o 560 operating stations covering 175 cities/towns – 700 stations sanctioned o Parameters monitored – SO 2, NO 2, TSP, PM 10 (at all the locations); PM 2.5, BTX, PAH, O 3, CO, NH 3 (Selected locations) o Characterization of PM 10 o Continuous monitoring initiated in 16 cities – 50 stations o Dissemination of data – Annual Reports, Trend Analysis, Environmental Data Bank; Real-time data from Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Stations of Delhi ACTIONS…..

9 AIR QUALITY MONITORING o Monitoring by Industries  Manual AAQM stations – 1000 +  Continuous AAQM stations – 1000 +  Continuous emission monitoring systems – 1000 +  Manual emission monitoring o Dissemination of data – Submitted to SPCBs ACTIONS…..






15 o Many actions – Desired results not achieved  WHO Estimates – 527,700 deaths in India every year due to air pollution  More than 75 towns are non-attainment areas with respect to PM o Are actions based on appropriate scientific studies?  Limited detailed emission inventories in urban areas  Limited exposure assessment – focus on numbers, cost-effectiveness not considered  Reliance on measurements – integrated approach not followed earlier, limited use of models  Strategies often short-term URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT – EMERGING ISSUES ??

16 o PM 10 – critical pollutants in most the urban areas o Complex problem – multiplicity and complexity of sources o Information on air quality and source contribution crucial input for taking policy & investment decisions – application of modeling tools EMERGING ISSUES….. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT

17 Project Cities and Population (in million) Delhi: 19 Mumbai:22 Chennai: 5 Bangalore: 7 Pune: 3.5 Kanpur: 3

18 o Challenging Task: Comprehensive study, First study of this nature and extent, Multiple agencies o Integrated Approach  Air quality measurements  07 locations covering different activity profiles  Seasonal variations  Parameters: PM 10, SO 2, NO 2, C 6 H 6, O 3, PM 2.5, etc.  100,000 samples analyzed  Chemical speciation of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (limited)  3000 samples analyzed for 36 elements, 11 ions, OC, EC and mol. markers representing typical urban sources ABOUT SIX CITY SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDY

19  Emission factors for vehicles  Mass emission tests on in-use vehicles covering different technologies, types of vehicles, vintage, etc.  450 nos. of emission tests; 89 of vehicles; additional data of 96 vehicles under source profiling study.  Expert Group critically examined the data and finalized EF.  Emission factors for non-vehicular sources  Identification of sources through primary surveys  Review of information on reported emission factors and data on emissions.  Uniform EF finalized by an Expert Group. SIX CITY STUDY…..

20  Emission inventory  Detailed primary surveys within zone of influence (2x2-km grids) o Identification of significant sources o Collection of primary data on activity levels o city-level projections based on land use and EI for monitoring grids  Traffic count surveys: o Different categories of roads o Parking lot/petrol pump surveys for obtaining data on vintage, fuel use, VKT per day o Video recording  Future projections considering developmental plans, changes in the land-use and activities and/or activity levels  BAU – 2007, 2012 and 2017 SIX CITY STUDY…..

21  Source emission profiles  54 stationary and 13 vehicle sources  Sources identified based on primary surveys in the cities  Categorized based on their nature (combustion or non- combustion) and occurrence (city specific or common to all cities) – CC, CCS, NCC, NCS  Sampling was done depending on source type – all the cities/one city/lab simulation  Sampling methodologies – Dilution sampling for combustion sources, re-suspension sampling for dust sources, and source dominated sampling for area sources.  Total 192 mass emission tests on 96 vehicles (2 tests on each vehicle)  Detailed chemical analysis similar to ambient air samples SIX CITY STUDY…..

22  Source Apportionment  PM 10 and PM 2.5 (limited)  Concentration of signature elements  Chemical speciation data and profiles were used  CMB model was run for each location for each day of sampling (at the location) for three seasons  Source contribution estimates for individual daily samples for a site in a season were averaged to calculate source contribution to that site for that season  Evaluation of control strategies – dispersion modeling SIX CITY STUDY…..

23  Formulation of action plan  Identification of prominent sources based on CMB-8, grouping of signature elements, EI  Each potential control option evaluated for assessing efficacy, feasibility and broad economic analysis  BAU and Controlled scenarios generated for 2012 and 2017  Combination of options (3 – 4 scenarios) were evaluated using dispersion model  Most appropriate scenario – formulation of Action Plan SIX CITY STUDY…..

24 AIR POLLUTION LEVELS (µg/m 3 ) AND PERCENT EXCEEDANCE SPM PM 10 PM 2.5 W* P** S*** W P S W P S Mean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%E BackgroundBangalore1100820830470105326610270230270 Chennai11717760178225508850713135143903414 Delhi549100546100517100355100300100232100 -- 131100 Kanpur3611003299334297204971699718790172100132100136100 Mumbai2466320457159171849713986913992676033290 Pune25795204651395123606357610450320220 ResidentialBangalore2941003011001772513388933569143604133290 Chennai16419173141752482252004686237886340 0 Delhi828100967100284905051006711008140301100 -- 300 Kanpur42910037397422100226100195100217100208100161100190100 Mumbai523100445100277542671002361001194897100871005433 Pune4991003629520650165951287210358 0350280 IndustrialBangalore262024501710 8117150695300210220 Chennai311834811319513831147441413867574107930 Delhi965100123910061170546100781100229819710031410052100 Kanpur603625775859161396763717438874305100273100232100 Mumbai3953388023832711002189699712710087100170 Pune4002516402700216857110121226333260370 KerbsideBangalore30610028793411100199100184851094364504333380 Chennai350782435921136111481287727167735756295114 Delhi10821002592100#####100451100941100337100306100361100107100 Kanpur564100532100561100292100260100273100216100226100218100 Mumbai3831003831003148256100234100124651191001261004118 Pune655100583100507100 2541001939513895 1241006267460 * W: Winter ** P: Post Monsoon, Summer in case of Bangalore *** S: Summer, Pre Monsoon in case of Bangalore % Exceedance 0-2525-5050-7575-100 SIX CITY STUDY…..

25 AIR POLLUTION LEVELS (µg/m 3 ) AND PERCENT EXCEEDANCE * W: Winter ** P: Post Monsoon, Summer in case of Bangalore *** S: Summer, Pre Monsoon in case of Bangalore % Exceedance 0-2525-5050-7575-100 SIX CITY STUDY….. NO x SO 2 W P S W P S Mean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%E BackgroundBangalore180451891566014090 Chennai27080140301050 Delhi3103302508015080 Kanpur230200 0808040 Mumbai531038018315013050 Pune36034010023010050 ResidentialBangalore460290904690150 0 Chennai320170280403030 Delhi73358865290140180780 Kanpur4903231901408040 Mumbai722560725012013060 Pune41643014018011060 IndustrialBangalore536300894490100 0 Chennai450200420604060 Delhi159851428060085207720110 Kanpur350240230260190150 Mumbai72053020018015070 Pune550170220400160220 KerbsideBangalore9462105656626100190130 Chennai450330430601040 Delhi1098512195470200 0120 Kanpur4604273701509080 Mumbai8243642033214015060 Pune71504305920 36712070

26 oEC and OC: 20 – 45% of PM 10, indicating effect of combustion/fuel related emissions. o High EC/OC represents freshly contributed diesel/combustion particles o EC/OC: less in PM 10 than PM 2.5 indicating EC dominance in finer fractions o Higher EC/OC at Kerbside indicate contribution of vehicular sources. SIX CITY STUDY…..

27 EMISSION INVENTORY PM 10 : o Major Source – Road dust re-suspension o Significant contribution of industries in Kanpur, Mumbai and Delhi NO x : o Vehicles are major source o Contribution of industries (power plants) high in Delhi, Mumbai and Kanpur Important observation: A few prominent sources in a city can mask the contribution of the other sources. SIX CITY STUDY…..

28 PM 10 SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS: ALL LOCATIONS SIX CITY STUDY….. CityBangaloreChennaiDelhiKanpurMumbaiPune Sources Roadside Dust45 – 556 – 2714 – 297 – 929 – 4749 – 64 Vehicles10 – 22 35 – 48 9 – 2015 – 178 – 262 – 10 Industries27-6 – 92 – 191 – 7- Construction--23 - 28 – 466 – 28 Secondary Particulates 2 – 11--16 – 1910 – 21- Domestic-4 – 203 – 915 – 263 – 18- DG Sets7 – 1814 – 167 – 125 – 8-3 – 4 Roadside dust and vehicles are prominent sources in all the six cities

29 o City-specific Action Plans o Sector Specific Strategies at National Level o Standard methodology for UAQM o Provided most needed scientific basis, evidence and insight to urban air quality issues. o Useful database on various air quality parameters. o Technical competence, experience and capacity building in terms of infrastructure as well as trained manpower. o Refined EF for vehicular exhaust emissions o More reliable EI o Source emission profiles o Cohesive Group of Expert Institutions SIX CITY STUDY….. OUTCOME

30 APPROACH o Need to follow an integrated approach: Source Apportionment o Include Exposure Assessment in the process o Strategies to be evolved on the basis of requirements o Coordination among concerned agencies – let action taken by one agency not reversed by other o Need to think beyond numbers – focus on reduction of toxic constituents, emission reduction strategies WAY FORWARD

31 AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS o Strengthening of monitoring network o Stations operated by industries – optimization, part of national network, reliability to be ensured, put to meaningful use o Proper citing of monitoring locations – use of models o Large no. of monitoring techniques – optimum blend, advance measurement technologies need to be robust, reliable, affordable o Meeting AAQ is collective responsibility, as there are multiple sources WAY FORWARD…..

32 ENFORCEMENT o Regulatory reforms – involvement of local bodies, EIA – in- built preventive measures, cleaner production options o Build reliable computer-based EI and work for reductions o Periodical review of actions – learn from experience and take corrective steps o Performance evaluation of model, Sensitivity analysis – for EIA o Remote monitoring of industries o Empower people with information WAY FORWARD…..

33 Thank You

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