Presentation on theme: "AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA INITIATIVES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Prashant Gargava Senior Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi – 110."— Presentation transcript:
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA INITIATIVES AND CHALLENGES Dr. Prashant Gargava Senior Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi – 110 032 (Email: email@example.com)firstname.lastname@example.org (Web: http://www.cpcb.nic.in)http://www.cpcb.nic.in INDIA-CALIFORNIA AIR MITIGATION PROGRAM (ICAMP) – PROJECT MEETING, OAKLAND, USA, OCTOBER 21 – 23, 2013
PRESENTATION OUTLINE AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Actions o What have been done? – Actions Status o What have been achieved? – Status Identifying Gaps o Are we on the right track? – Identifying Gaps Way Forward o What more need to be done? – Way Forward INITIATIVES CHALLENGES
REGULATORY PROVISIONS o Institutional Mechanism: MoEF, CPCB, SPCB o Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 o Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 o Revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards – 2009 Rationale – Health consideration primary focus, Not based on land use, SPM omitted, 12 parameters including some of HAPs INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL o Mandatory Environmental Clearance – Specified Projects; Central/State clearance based on type and size of projects o Use of cleaner fuel – Beneficiated coal, NG for Fertilizer Plants ACTIONS
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL o Emission Norms Sector specific based on techno-economic considerations – over 75 industrial sectors States can make it more stringent, if required o Promotion of Cleaner Technologies – DCDA process for H 2 SO 4 plants, Membrane Cell for caustic soda plants o Environmental audit and statement o Environmental Surveillance o Identification of critically polluted areas based on Comprehensive Index (CEPI), and Implementation of action plans o CREP, ISO certification – voluntary initiative ACTIONS…..
VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL o Improved fuel quality – Bharat Stage IV in major cities, Bharat Stage – III in rest of the country o Alternate cleaner fuel (CNG/LPG) o Progressive emission norms for vehicles o Improvement in public transport system (Metro) o Phasing out of old commercial vehicles o Better traffic management – Restriction on goods vehicles during day time, Installation of time clocks at important crossings, Construction of more flyovers and subways and closing of T-Junctions, Regular information about traffic flow through radio ACTIONS…..
Norms Year of Implementation 1996 1998 (Cat. Convertor Norms) 1998 Bharat Stage I (Euro I) 1999 Bharat Stage II (Euro II) 2001 Bharat Stage III (Euro III) 2005 Bharat Stage IV (Euro IV) 2010 STRICTER NORMS FOR EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES ACTIONS…..
FUEL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS…..Norms Year of Implementation 0.5% S – Diesel1996 0.25% S – Diesel2000 0.05% S – Diesel2003 0.035% S – Diesel2005 0.005% S – Diesel2010 Unleaded Petrol2000
AIR QUALITY MONITORING o National Air Quality Monitoring Network o 560 operating stations covering 175 cities/towns – 700 stations sanctioned o Parameters monitored – SO 2, NO 2, TSP, PM 10 (at all the locations); PM 2.5, BTX, PAH, O 3, CO, NH 3 (Selected locations) o Characterization of PM 10 o Continuous monitoring initiated in 16 cities – 50 stations o Dissemination of data – Annual Reports, Trend Analysis, Environmental Data Bank; Real-time data from Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Stations of Delhi ACTIONS…..
AIR QUALITY MONITORING o Monitoring by Industries Manual AAQM stations – 1000 + Continuous AAQM stations – 1000 + Continuous emission monitoring systems – 1000 + Manual emission monitoring o Dissemination of data – Submitted to SPCBs ACTIONS…..
SO 2 PERCENTAGE OF CITIES (RES. AREAS) WITH LOW, MODERATE, HIGH AND CRITICAL LEVELS AIR QUALITY STATUS
NO 2 PERCENTAGE OF CITIES (RES. AREAS) WITH LOW, MODERATE, HIGH AND CRITICAL LEVELS AIR QUALITY STATUS…..
PM 10 PERCENTAGE OF CITIES (RES. AREAS) WITH LOW, MODERATE, HIGH AND CRITICAL LEVELS AIR QUALITY STATUS…..
NATIONAL MEAN CONCENTRATION OF NO 2 AIR QUALITY STATUS…..
o Many actions – Desired results not achieved WHO Estimates – 527,700 deaths in India every year due to air pollution More than 75 towns are non-attainment areas with respect to PM o Are actions based on appropriate scientific studies? Limited detailed emission inventories in urban areas Limited exposure assessment – focus on numbers, cost-effectiveness not considered Reliance on measurements – integrated approach not followed earlier, limited use of models Strategies often short-term URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT – EMERGING ISSUES ??
o PM 10 – critical pollutants in most the urban areas o Complex problem – multiplicity and complexity of sources o Information on air quality and source contribution crucial input for taking policy & investment decisions – application of modeling tools EMERGING ISSUES….. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT
Project Cities and Population (in million) Delhi: 19 Mumbai:22 Chennai: 5 Bangalore: 7 Pune: 3.5 Kanpur: 3
o Challenging Task: Comprehensive study, First study of this nature and extent, Multiple agencies o Integrated Approach Air quality measurements 07 locations covering different activity profiles Seasonal variations Parameters: PM 10, SO 2, NO 2, C 6 H 6, O 3, PM 2.5, etc. 100,000 samples analyzed Chemical speciation of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (limited) 3000 samples analyzed for 36 elements, 11 ions, OC, EC and mol. markers representing typical urban sources ABOUT SIX CITY SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDY
Emission factors for vehicles Mass emission tests on in-use vehicles covering different technologies, types of vehicles, vintage, etc. 450 nos. of emission tests; 89 of vehicles; additional data of 96 vehicles under source profiling study. Expert Group critically examined the data and finalized EF. Emission factors for non-vehicular sources Identification of sources through primary surveys Review of information on reported emission factors and data on emissions. Uniform EF finalized by an Expert Group. SIX CITY STUDY…..
Emission inventory Detailed primary surveys within zone of influence (2x2-km grids) o Identification of significant sources o Collection of primary data on activity levels o city-level projections based on land use and EI for monitoring grids Traffic count surveys: o Different categories of roads o Parking lot/petrol pump surveys for obtaining data on vintage, fuel use, VKT per day o Video recording Future projections considering developmental plans, changes in the land-use and activities and/or activity levels BAU – 2007, 2012 and 2017 SIX CITY STUDY…..
Source emission profiles 54 stationary and 13 vehicle sources Sources identified based on primary surveys in the cities Categorized based on their nature (combustion or non- combustion) and occurrence (city specific or common to all cities) – CC, CCS, NCC, NCS Sampling was done depending on source type – all the cities/one city/lab simulation Sampling methodologies – Dilution sampling for combustion sources, re-suspension sampling for dust sources, and source dominated sampling for area sources. Total 192 mass emission tests on 96 vehicles (2 tests on each vehicle) Detailed chemical analysis similar to ambient air samples SIX CITY STUDY…..
Source Apportionment PM 10 and PM 2.5 (limited) Concentration of signature elements Chemical speciation data and profiles were used CMB model was run for each location for each day of sampling (at the location) for three seasons Source contribution estimates for individual daily samples for a site in a season were averaged to calculate source contribution to that site for that season Evaluation of control strategies – dispersion modeling SIX CITY STUDY…..
Formulation of action plan Identification of prominent sources based on CMB-8, grouping of signature elements, EI Each potential control option evaluated for assessing efficacy, feasibility and broad economic analysis BAU and Controlled scenarios generated for 2012 and 2017 Combination of options (3 – 4 scenarios) were evaluated using dispersion model Most appropriate scenario – formulation of Action Plan SIX CITY STUDY…..
AIR POLLUTION LEVELS (µg/m 3 ) AND PERCENT EXCEEDANCE SPM PM 10 PM 2.5 W* P** S*** W P S W P S Mean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%E BackgroundBangalore1100820830470105326610270230270 Chennai11717760178225508850713135143903414 Delhi549100546100517100355100300100232100 -- 131100 Kanpur3611003299334297204971699718790172100132100136100 Mumbai2466320457159171849713986913992676033290 Pune25795204651395123606357610450320220 ResidentialBangalore2941003011001772513388933569143604133290 Chennai16419173141752482252004686237886340 0 Delhi828100967100284905051006711008140301100 -- 300 Kanpur42910037397422100226100195100217100208100161100190100 Mumbai523100445100277542671002361001194897100871005433 Pune4991003629520650165951287210358 0350280 IndustrialBangalore262024501710 8117150695300210220 Chennai311834811319513831147441413867574107930 Delhi965100123910061170546100781100229819710031410052100 Kanpur603625775859161396763717438874305100273100232100 Mumbai3953388023832711002189699712710087100170 Pune4002516402700216857110121226333260370 KerbsideBangalore30610028793411100199100184851094364504333380 Chennai350782435921136111481287727167735756295114 Delhi10821002592100#####100451100941100337100306100361100107100 Kanpur564100532100561100292100260100273100216100226100218100 Mumbai3831003831003148256100234100124651191001261004118 Pune655100583100507100 2541001939513895 1241006267460 * W: Winter ** P: Post Monsoon, Summer in case of Bangalore *** S: Summer, Pre Monsoon in case of Bangalore % Exceedance 0-2525-5050-7575-100 SIX CITY STUDY…..
AIR POLLUTION LEVELS (µg/m 3 ) AND PERCENT EXCEEDANCE * W: Winter ** P: Post Monsoon, Summer in case of Bangalore *** S: Summer, Pre Monsoon in case of Bangalore % Exceedance 0-2525-5050-7575-100 SIX CITY STUDY….. NO x SO 2 W P S W P S Mean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%EMean%E BackgroundBangalore180451891566014090 Chennai27080140301050 Delhi3103302508015080 Kanpur230200 0808040 Mumbai531038018315013050 Pune36034010023010050 ResidentialBangalore460290904690150 0 Chennai320170280403030 Delhi73358865290140180780 Kanpur4903231901408040 Mumbai722560725012013060 Pune41643014018011060 IndustrialBangalore536300894490100 0 Chennai450200420604060 Delhi159851428060085207720110 Kanpur350240230260190150 Mumbai72053020018015070 Pune550170220400160220 KerbsideBangalore9462105656626100190130 Chennai450330430601040 Delhi1098512195470200 0120 Kanpur4604273701509080 Mumbai8243642033214015060 Pune71504305920 36712070
oEC and OC: 20 – 45% of PM 10, indicating effect of combustion/fuel related emissions. o High EC/OC represents freshly contributed diesel/combustion particles o EC/OC: less in PM 10 than PM 2.5 indicating EC dominance in finer fractions o Higher EC/OC at Kerbside indicate contribution of vehicular sources. SIX CITY STUDY…..
EMISSION INVENTORY PM 10 : o Major Source – Road dust re-suspension o Significant contribution of industries in Kanpur, Mumbai and Delhi NO x : o Vehicles are major source o Contribution of industries (power plants) high in Delhi, Mumbai and Kanpur Important observation: A few prominent sources in a city can mask the contribution of the other sources. SIX CITY STUDY…..
o City-specific Action Plans o Sector Specific Strategies at National Level o Standard methodology for UAQM o Provided most needed scientific basis, evidence and insight to urban air quality issues. o Useful database on various air quality parameters. o Technical competence, experience and capacity building in terms of infrastructure as well as trained manpower. o Refined EF for vehicular exhaust emissions o More reliable EI o Source emission profiles o Cohesive Group of Expert Institutions SIX CITY STUDY….. OUTCOME
APPROACH o Need to follow an integrated approach: Source Apportionment o Include Exposure Assessment in the process o Strategies to be evolved on the basis of requirements o Coordination among concerned agencies – let action taken by one agency not reversed by other o Need to think beyond numbers – focus on reduction of toxic constituents, emission reduction strategies WAY FORWARD
AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS o Strengthening of monitoring network o Stations operated by industries – optimization, part of national network, reliability to be ensured, put to meaningful use o Proper citing of monitoring locations – use of models o Large no. of monitoring techniques – optimum blend, advance measurement technologies need to be robust, reliable, affordable o Meeting AAQ is collective responsibility, as there are multiple sources WAY FORWARD…..
ENFORCEMENT o Regulatory reforms – involvement of local bodies, EIA – in- built preventive measures, cleaner production options o Build reliable computer-based EI and work for reductions o Periodical review of actions – learn from experience and take corrective steps o Performance evaluation of model, Sensitivity analysis – for EIA o Remote monitoring of industries o Empower people with information WAY FORWARD…..