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Tools for Addressing Community Concerns Tim Eaton General Manager Safety and Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Tools for Addressing Community Concerns Tim Eaton General Manager Safety and Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tools for Addressing Community Concerns Tim Eaton General Manager Safety and Environment

2 Resident Concerns about Freight Safety Noise Air Quality Health Amenity

3 ALGA Draft Strategy safer, quieter, cleaner freight vehicles alleviating freight impacts on local amenity minimising community impacts good safety and environmental outcomes

4 NTC programs Safety – fatigue (inc rest areas) – speed – heavy Vehicle Safety Strategy Environment – noise – emissions

5 Air Quality New Vehicle Emission Standards Fuel Quality Standards In-service Emission Standards – Maintenance is the key

6 Light Vehicles Euro 4 for petrol, LPG, NG in 2008/10 95 and 98 RON petrol at 50ppm sulfur 2008 10ppm sulfur levels under review (2010?)

7 Heavy Vehicles Euro 4 for diesel engines in 2007/8 (noise standards at same time) 10ppm sulfur diesel in 2009 Euro 5 for diesel engines in 2010/11 (US and Japanese as alternatives) On-board diagnostics mandatory

8 Emission Reduction Already Achieved In 8 years we’ve come a long way!!! n Vehicles deliver 75% lower NOx emissions. n Particulates reduced by over 90%.

9 USA On-Highway Regulations 1988 to 2010 EPA ‘88 EPA ‘91 EPA ‘94 EPA ‘98 EPA ‘04 EPA 07/10

10 Emission std close-up

11 Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Caterpillar HCCI Results (2003) Emissions are IN cylinder

12 Anders Lundström Transport Industry Council Sydney 2004-07-07 Path taken Euro5 Euro4

13 Cummins Confidential Evolution of On-Highway Standards EPA & Euro 0.010.10 0.2 1.2 2.5 4.0 5.0 EPA 1994 EPA 1999 EPA 2004 PARTICULATE [g/HP-hr] NOx [g/HP-hr] Euro 2 1996 Euro 3 2001 EPA 2010 EPA 2007 (avg) Euro 5 2009 Euro 4 2006 0.0750.110.015 ULSD 15 PPM (6/06) 500 PPM (6/93) SULFUR EPA ULSD 10 PPM (1/09) 500 PPM (10/96 ) SULFUR Euro

14 14 Cooled EGRSCR Technical solutions Engine control unit Urea Air Catalytic converter Engine Exhaust gas NH 3 + NOx → N 2 + H 2 O Recirculated and cooled exhaust gas Intake air Exhaust gas * Exhaust gas recirculation ** Selective catalytic reduction ***

15 15 Operating economy Fuel Euro 3 Scania SCR Fuel Euro 4 Fuel Euro 5 Urea solution Fuel saving 3-4% (V8) Euro 4 3-4% Scania EGR Fuel saving 3-4% (V8) Urea solution 5-6% Euro 5 Proven technology Urea supply and price still unclear

16 Cummins Confidential Integrating Critical Subsystems

17 17 More efficient road transport Fuel consumed per tonne-km (= CO 2 emissions) 50% 1970 Engine improvement Aerodynamic drag Rolling resistance 2000 Increased payload capacity Driver influence 10 percent

18 Environmental Performance (Minus 2 Pallets) No of trucks 2 3 7 11 Fuel Syd-Bris 1.105 L 1.300 L 2.191 L 2.860 L NOx kg 22 26 44 57 PM g 390 460 770 1000 CO 2 ton 3,0 3,5 5,9 7,7 Source: Volvo Trucks

19 Brisbane Urban Corridor Trial –Five monitoring stations supporting night-time truck trial on Logan Motorway. –Development of real-time data analysis tools –Integration with vehicle classifiers and Weigh in Motion Site Installation into Other Major Road Corridors –Gateway Upgrade Project Future Directions Understanding Road Use

20 The Problem: Vehicle Noise ADR 83/00 gazetted in March – new generation of standards for all vehicles (motorbikes to trucks). – Lowers engine noise levels – Won’t do anything about engine brakes Engine brakes major source of community complaint – ATC asked NTC to address the matter

21 What are Engine Brakes? Secondary retarders Assists heavy vehicles to slow down without use of service brakes (no cost!) – exhaust brakes – hydraulic retarders – electromagnetic retarders – regenerative brakes (future) – engine brakes Jacobs or “Jake Brake”

22 Hydraulic retarders: Quiet! “the thing that impressed us most was Scania’s brilliant, and utterly silent, hydraulic retarder. If the Scania was hauling 42tonnes and slowing down outside your bedroom window, you wouldn’t know about it. Urban dwellers can thank Scania for that. Truck operators can thank them for making possible real reductions in wheel brake maintenance costs. This is the most comfortable Truck I’ve ever driven” Barry Ashenhurst “Welcome to first class” in Truck Australia, May 2002

23 Other engine brakes: Quiet! VGT gives quieter maximum braking capacity fuel savings of 5% 20% less weight noise levels one quarter of predecessor reduced operating costs 15% to 20% source

24 Jacobs Engine Brake

25 Courtesy With Jake-brake engaged Normal compression stroke

26 Some Facts: Secondary retarders are a cost saving device – They save wear on the service brakes – They are not mandated anywhere in the world, but almost every heavy truck has one Most forms of secondary retarders remain quiet throughout their lifetime – All engine brakes are reasonably quiet when new because the oem mufflers are well designed in in good condition – Jacobs brake will become noisy when mufflers deteriorate or are replaced with inferior produce – The vehicle will still meets the in-service noise standard because it’s a stationary test (engine brake won’t work)

27 Solutions We just need them to fit decent mufflers! Many ways of achieving this: do a stationary test X reverse-drive by under controlled conditions X pull-over noisy vehicles and check muffler integrity X roadside measurement using agreed descriptor ?

28 2002/3 Test Program 600 trucks tested on the road 6 locations in NSW & SA Release “ Engine Brake Noise: Development of a Roadside Test Procedure” on 1 September 2003 Proposes modulation characteristic to identify trucks with noisy engine brakes Decibels poor method of capturing annoying noise such as engine brakes

29 Modulation characteristic

30 Picking a ‘threshold’ level of annoyance using modulation RTA engage experts to design methodology to determine a reasonable level – January 2006 Run a series of panels using community participants – Pick a reasonable threshold level during public consultation

31 Unacceptable Modulation No modulation

32 Practical application of the modulation characteristic – Need to be able to identify noisy engine brakes quickly and efficiently (at the roadside) – Need standard measurement equipment with ‘modulation’ feature – Put it in a camera and run a trial





37 Key issue: Can all trucks meet the new standard at a reasonable cost? – We know it’s just about mufflers – RTA test program – Use available mufflers (varying quality) – Give industry information about the choice of the muffler

38 Proposed regulation Set in-service noise limit for engine brakes based on a community derived ‘annoyance’ level – Application Australia-wide – Level of enforcement up to jurisdictions Engine brake ‘bans’ in certain areas – Address the safety issue Not mandated Only plausible safety argument is for long, steep descents Flat low-speed highly populated environments may demand no engine brake noise at all

39 Key Costs and Benefits Cost to truck operators with poor mufflers: – Either upgrade muffler(s) or – Rely more on the service brakes (wear and tear) Enforcement Costs Benefit to community of reduction in engine brake noise (‘internalise externality’) Engaged ARRB to assist with analysis – Positive outcome over longer term

40 Process Public consultation phase is critical – Opportunity to review methodology – Need to set a reasonable level Reasonable for both operators and the community – Need to consult on perceived safety issues – Fine tune costs and benefits – Confirm the relative importance of this issue to the community

41 Process (cont) Consider submissions, hold meetings, release public response document Propose final policy supported by RIS Formal submission to ATC Jurisdictions build into road transport or environment legislation


43 Crash-zone concept Energy absorption enough to transform a 80 - 90 km/h car to truck frontal collision into an equal 60 km/h crash

44 Crash-zone concept 300 mm 300 mm length and 150 - 250 kg weight added. Extra weight and length should be permitted

45 Crash-zone concept Cars Trailer-back

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