Teacher Notes: Livigno (Case Study based on Places – Waugh) – the whole of the Livigno Valley has, by EU agreement, been declared a tax free zone and consequently people from neighbouring areas in northern Italy travel to buy all sorts of goods – groceries, cigarettes and high order goods. Each day the whole settlement is busy with huge numbers of shoppers who access the village by road links through the mountains. The changes described in the textbook set the basis for what has happened but now there is considerable investment in new shops, in quality hotels, and opportunities for skiing. The old buildings remain in many parts and many people still have some agricultural interests. It may be worthwhile considering the economic, social and environmental impacts of such changes and reflect also upon the impact of small settlements outside the tax free zone but along the roads leading to the passes. The small tunnel (single file) to Switzerland is not busy in summer as there is a charge of 10 Euros for a single ticket. Currently (2006) sugrar was retailing for 59 cents (c. 40p per kilo) and petrol at 95 cents per litre (c. 65p). The pictures were taken in August 2006.