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ALTERNATIVE FUELS Teaching & Learning Materials – Update 2007 funded within the 6th Framework Programme of the EU as Specific Support Action Vol. 1
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Definition Alternative fuels are defined as all fuels, with the exception of the mineral oil products petrol and diesel, that may contribute towards reducing emissions of air pollutants, greenhouse gases or the consumption of finite resources. The following applies as a general principle: “There is neither one single biofuel nor one alternative fuel, but rather a multitude of liquid, gaseous and electrical sources of energy “. [BMU_2006] For each of these fuels there are different manufacturing processes (fuel pathways) available. As a general rule, these fuels can either be used in their pure forms or blended with other fuels.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Definition Renewable resources Plant parts fruit, seeds Renewable electricity Biogenic waste materials Conventional resources Natural gas Electricity Waste materials Mineral oil Coal Alternative fuels gaseous electrical energy liquid Side effects: Shift of emissions and consumption in terms of materials used, as well as place and time of application Aims: Reduction of GHG emissions, air pollutants, costs...
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Production process for biogenic fuels Biomass (biogenic residues, fruits, seeds) Regenerative electricity Source: Gasification Biomethanol BTL Hydrogen Synthesis/ Processing Extraction Biodiesel Vegetable oil Transesterificat ion Fermentation Bioethanol ETBE Biogas Transesterification HydrogenElectrolysis of water Biomass (biogenic residues, fruits, seeds) regenerativer Strom Source: Gasification Biomethanol BTL Hydrogen Synthese/ Aufbereitung Extraction Biodiesel Vegetable oil Trasesterification Fermentation Bioethanol ETBE Biogas Transesterification HydrogenElectrolysis of water Biomass (biogenic residues, fruits, seeds) Regenerative electricity Gasification Biomethanol BtL Hydrogen Synthesis/ Processing Biodiesel Vegetable oil Bioethanol ETBE Biogas Hydrogen Electrolysis of water Fermentation Transesterification Extraction
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Goals for the use of alternative fuels Reducing the discharge of gases with global warming potential Reducing emissions that are harmful to the environment and to people’s health Decreasing the dependency on mineral oil Improving the security of supply Safeguarding the supply of “affordable” fuels Opening up additional potentials for innovation and employment
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Required reduction of pollutants in the transport sector Local Particles Noise Nitrogen oxides Greenhouse gases GlobalRegional High priority Low priority Spatial reference NO x NO 2
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Assessment of selected fuels Source:KolkeR_2004, EichmannV_2006
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Current status and developments Continuing standardisation of fuel quality and corresponding monitoring systems An increase in the EU-wide blend ratio stipulated for biofuels in petrol/diesel [EC_845/2006] from the current 5.75% to 10% by 2020 Discussion of the origin of biomass, of the limits on capacity and of the criteria for trade in biomass and biofuels from the perspectives of social and ecological impacts, as well as of the existing situation with regard to competition for resources Changeover to the use of second-generation biogenic fuels and to a broader range of raw materials Conversion of production plants for alternative fuels, e.g. FT fuels, on a large scale
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Economic challenges Ensuring planning security for investors, farmers, producers, filling station owners, fleet operators and private users of alternative fuels Reducing of inefficiencies caused by an overly strong segmentation of the fuel and vehicle markets Focusing more strongly on production and use of second-generation fuels Achieving the transition to stand-alone profitability for the alternative fuels used
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Technical challenges Technological and cost-related optimisation of production processes, in particular for second-generation fuels, as well as their transition into large-scale industrial use Utilisation of existing technical reduction potential in conventional vehicles and engines Further development of long-term options for the use of alternative fuels Safeguarding of reliable fuel quality with the focus on verifiable standards
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Ecological and social challenges Development of suitable criteria and rules for the evaluation and trade of biogenic sources of energy on international (and domestic) markets Establishment of sustainable limits for the use of biogenic resources More careful consideration of potential competition between the alternative uses for land areas, raw materials, foodstuffs, etc.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Political challenges Better integration of fuel strategies within a superordinate energy policy Implementation of trans-sectoral mechanisms to promote efficient use of scarce resources Utilisation of existing efficiencies in transport and infrastructure planning with the aim of improving or maintaining a sufficiently high and consistent level of mobility with a lower volume of traffic Harmonisation of the framework for the use of alternative fuels and propulsion systems Increased transfer of the results derived from research efforts and practical application to education, policy makers and potential users Establishment of medium- and long-term sustainable financing mechanisms Introduction of mechanisms that ensure that government support for biogenic sources of energy also leads to the desired employment effects at a national level
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Promotion of biofuels in the EU-25 Source: Thrän et al._11/2005
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Biofuel shares introduced in the EU-25 Source: EC_845/2006 FR AT 01/ /2005 SLO CZ GE NL LT % ( alternatively, extra tax payments for mineral oil companies ) 7% 2.5% 4.3% 5.75% 1.2% 2% 3% 4% 5% 4.4% DF; 1.2% PF 5.75% DF; 2% PF 2% 5.75% DF – diesel fuel; PF – petrol fuel
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Dissemination of alternative fuels in the EU-25 in 2005 Share of fuel sales volume in % 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 AT BECY CZ DF EST FIN FR DE GR HU IRL IT LT LV LU M NL PLPT SK SLO ES S UK EU25 Source: National reports under the Biofuels Directive
ALTERNATIVE FUELS National targets for the use of alternative fuels in the EU-25
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Evaluation and comparison The vehicles, the associated fuels and the necessary infrastructure, including the processes required, are to be considered as one entity and are to be assessed over comparable periods of time. Realistic development potentials should be given appropriate consideration. Comparisons should be based on specific fuel pathways and specific operating conditions. Reallocations of costs, emissions, effects or impacts to other areas, materials, locations, times or persons should be given particular attention. The transfer of results to other contexts must be scrutinised critically and is often impossible
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Impact analysis of alternative fuels The environmental impact of fuels (particularly of biofuels) must be assessed by taking the entire life cycle into consideration. In addition to CO 2, the climate impact analysis must also include other relevant emissions, such as N 2 O and CH 4. The vehicles, the associated fuels, the fuel supply and the necessary infrastructure, including the processes required, are to be considered as one entity and must be assessed over comparable periods of time. The assumed framework conditions, the envelope boundaries and the underlying aim of the analysis are decisive for the results of the assessment. The efficiency of using alternative fuels should be assessed on a trans- sectoral basis. The results obtained are significantly influenced by the reference processes that have been selected.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Determination of potential When determining potentials and interpreting the results of such determinations, a distinction must be made between the following definitions of “potential”: Theoretical potential (e.g. physically available biomass) Technological potential (e.g. technologically usable biomass (time reference)) Economic potential (economically usable potential (general framework)) Realisable potential (anticipated actual contribution (time reference)) Particularly the economic and the realisable potentials are significantly determined by the underlying general framework. The results of potential analyses are decisively affected by the underlying assumptions and by restrictions.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The importance of assumptions and restrictions for potential analyses BaselineNature conservation plus Beet ethanol Wheat ethanol RME Land area potential 2005 Acreage required to meet EU targets for 2010 Source: BMU_2004 Land area potentials and land areas required to reach the biofuel targets for Germany [ 1000 ha ]
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Costs associated with the use of alternative fuels The provision of biogenic fuels currently leads, in general, to higher costs in comparison with petrol and diesel. Marketable prices for biogenic fuels (particularly for pure fuels) can only be achieved with the aid of government subsidies. Government subsidies for alternative fuels are counterbalanced by (partially significant) benefits, for example on the part of the users. Assessments of the profitability of alternative fuels are only possible if they are based on specific operational and framework conditions. In areas such as heat generation, the use of biogenic energy sources already has the capacity to compete with conventional sources.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Negative environmental effects of plant-based fuels High land area use Negative impact on biodiversity Increased exploitation of the resource “soil” Contribution to the depletion of the ozone layer through the release of N 2 O Environmental risk as a result of the penetration of fertilisers into water courses Release of non-limited, toxic emissions during operation Possible conflicts with modern exhaust gas treatment systems
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Incentives for the use of alternative fuels Subsidisation programmes Tax incentives (bonuses, penalties), Reduction of operating and administrative costs, Advantages for users (inner city toll, access restrictions, road charges), Specification of quality for tendering and subcontracting practices, Environmental goals (environmental reports, customer acceptance, advertisement), Reduction of economic risks (resale value, orders), Compliance with occupational health and safety regulations (e.g. air quality inside garages and road tunnels)
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Properties of alternative fuels Sources: KolkeR_2004, IE_11/2005, TAT_04/2006 SeyfriedF
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Properties of alternative fuels Sources: KolkeR_2004, BöhmerT_1999
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of vegetable oils
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of FAME
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of ethanol
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of FT fuels
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of natural gas
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of biogas
ALTERNATIVE FUELS The supply path of LPG
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Development of the international oil price, real terms partial Average annual oil price ($/barrel, real terms, 2005) Source: inflationdata.com
ALTERNATIVE FUELS Development of CO 2 emissions Forecast of change in CO 2 emissions, 2005–2020 (Mt per year in the EU-25 (CO 2 only)). Source: PRIMES TotalTransport TradeHouseholdsIndustry Electricity/ Heat Energy sector