22Refining of petroleum Sources of hydrocarbons Petroleum Aliphatic hydrocarbonsCoalAromatic hydrocarbons
23Approximate composition Refining of petroleumFractionBoiling rangeApproximate compositionusesGaseous113 to 303 KC1 - C5 (2%)For producing carbon black and in preparation of ammonia, methyl alcohol and gasoline.Petroleum ether or Ligroin303 to 363C5 - C7 (2%)solvent for oils, fats, rubber and in dry cleaning.Gasoline or petrol343 to 473C7 - C12 (32%)Mainly as a motor fuel.
24Approximate composition Refining of petroleumFractionBoiling rangeApproximate compositionusesKerosene448 to 548C12 - C15(18%)Illuminant fuel and for preparing petrol gas.Gas oil, fuel oil and diesel oil523 to 673C15 - C18(20%)In furnace oil, fuel for diesel engines and in cracking.Lubricating oils and petroleum jelly623 and upC16 and upUsed mainly as lubricants.
26Synthetic petrolFischer-Tropsch processBergius process
27Octane numberPercentage by volume of iso-octane in the mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane which has the same anti-knocking qualities as the fuel under examination.
28Octane numberStraight chain alkanes have low octane numbers. The greater the length of the chain, lower is the octane number.Straight chain alkenes and alkynes, and also cyclic alkanes have higher octane numbers than their corresponding alkanes.Branched chain hydrocarbons have high octane numbers.Aromatic hydrocarbons have very high octane numbers.
32Class exercise 2Product isSolution:Hence, the answer is (a).
33Class exercise 3Which of the following carbides are used in preparation of methane by action of water?(a) CaC2 (b) Al4C3 (c) Si C (d) All of theseSolution:Hence, the answer is (b).
34Class exercise 4Which of the following reactions will give maximum yield?Solution:Reaction proceeds via free radical mechanism and excess of C2H6 is needed as it forms various products.Hence, the answer is (b).
35Class exercise 5Which of the following compounds will have the highest heat of combustion?C3H6 (b) C5H12 (c) C6H14 (d) C10H22Solution:It has highest number of carbon and hydrogen atoms.Hence, the answer is (d).
36Class exercise 6Which of the following reactions will give unsymmetrical alkanes in good yield?(a) Frankland reaction (b) Wurtz reaction (c) Corey House reaction (d) All of theseSolution:Frankland and Wurtz reaction gives alkane having even number of carbon atoms.Hence, the answer is (c).
37Class exercise 7 Which of the following is true for above reaction? (a) Compound X and Y are formed in equal quantities(b) Compound Y is formed in excess(c) Compound X is formed in excess(d) None of these
39Class exercise 8The monochlorination of an alkane (molecular formula C8H18) gives only one product. The IUPAC name of alkane is(a) neo octane (b) iso octane (c) 2, 2, 3-trimethylpentane (d) 2, 2, 3, 3-tetramethylbutaneSolution:Hence, the answer is (d).
40Class exercise 9Hydrolysis of calcium carbide gives a solution with pH(a) 0 (b) < 7 (c) > 7 (d) 3Solution:pH is more than 7 due to formation of Ca(OH)2.Hence, the answer is (c).
41Class exercise 10 Sodium benzoate + sodia lime X. X is ethane (b) benzene (c) ethene (d) propaneSolution:Hence, the answer is (b).