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Burning issue of herbal fuel Gapped Summary 2000 AS UE.

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Presentation on theme: "Burning issue of herbal fuel Gapped Summary 2000 AS UE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Burning issue of herbal fuel Gapped Summary 2000 AS UE

3 Burning issue of herbal fuel 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

4 Ramar Pillai is a self-taught scientist from the (48) state of Tamil, who claims he can turn (49) into (50). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

5 Ramar Pillai is a self-taught scientist from the (48) state of Tamil Nadu, who claims he can turn (49) into (50). 48. Paragraph 1 “In Tamil Nadu in the south of India, the only state where the fuel is sold, motor scooter owners …” Tamil Nadu is a state in the south of India. (48) will be two words describing what kind of state Tamil Nadu is. (48) South/Southern Indian

6 Ramar Pillai is a self-taught scientist from the (48) state of Tamil Nadu, who claims he can turn (49) into (50). (49)/(50) Paragraph 1 “… the Tamil Nadu school dropout … trying to find a backer for his ‘secret’ method of turning herbs into fuel.” What does he claim to be able to do? (49) herbs (50) fuel

7 Mr. Pillai discovered the secret more that 20 years ago on a (51) when he accidentally set fire to a leaf. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

8 Mr. Pillai discovered the secret more than 20 years ago on a (51) when he accidentally set fire to a leaf. (51) paragraph 3 “He says he discovered the properties of the mystery ‘herb’ during a school picnic in … he liked playing with matches and was surprised to see a leaf burn.” 1978 was a little more than 20 years before this exam. (51) school picnic

9 He dropped out of school and spent many years looking for the leaf and working on the (52) in order to be able to produce fuel. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

10 He dropped out of school and spent many years looking for the leaf and working on the (52) in order to be able to produce fuel. Paragraph 3 “He decided to leave school and claims to have roamed the jungle for 10 years before finding the plant, and then toiled tirelessly in his home- made laboratory to perfect his formula.” Working on the (52) = toiled tirelessly in his laboratory to perfect his formula (52) formula

11 Apart from water and some readily-available (53), there are two necessary secret ingredients needed to make the fuel – the (54) and a (55) 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

12 Apart from water and some readily-available (53), there are two necessary secret ingredients needed to make the fuel – the (54) and a (55) Paragraph 3 “The recipe requires water, the mystery plant, the correct quantities of a number of common chemicals, …, plus a secret catalyst.” Readily-available = common (53) chemicals Two ingredients are missing: the mystery plant and a secret catalyst. (54) and (55) both only have one blank, so we should omit the adjectives. (54) plant (55) catalyst

13 When these are combined, a mixture is initially produced which will burn – although it is not very (56). If left for a few days, the fuel content can rise significantly. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

14 When these are combined, a mixture is initially produced which will burn – although it is not very (56). If left for a few days, the fuel content can rise significantly. Paragraph 5 “Given several days, he said, the purity improves dramatically to more than 95%.” If the purity improves dramatically, we can assume that it isn’t very pure at first. Will a noun or adjective follow “very”? (56) pure

15 … studies … have shown that the fuel is cheaper and purer than normal petrol, and that engines which use the fuel do not need to be (57). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

16 … studies … have shown that the fuel is cheaper and purer than normal petrol, and that engines which use the fuel do not need to be (57). Paragraph 5 “… a report … concluded after a test that the fuel was more economical than regular petrol when used in an unmodified engine, …” Do not need to be (57) = an unmodified engine (57) modified

17 When he first made his breakthrough, because of its potential importance, Mr. Pillai had to be guarded by the (58). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

18 When he first made his breakthrough, because of its potential importance, Mr. Pillai had to be guarded by the (58). Paragraph 2 “…Indian scientists announced he had made an amazing breakthrough and officials from his home state accorded him police protection.” Who guarded/protected him? (58) police

19 Subsequent studies by the Indian Government, however, have resulted in Mr Pillai’s work being labelled a (59). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

20 Subsequent studies by the Indian Government, however, have resulted in Mr Pillai’s work being labelled a (59). Paragraph 2 First they say that Mr Pillai used hollowed out spoon filled with petrol in his experiment. Then they say: “A statement from the Department was later tabled … branding Mr. Pillai a fraud.” “branding” = “labelled” If you say that Mr. Pillai is a fraud, you can say the same thing about his work. (59) fraud

21 Indeed, the Indian Government stated that, in his demonstrations, Mr. Pillai used a hollowed-out (60). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

22 Indeed, the Indian Government stated that, in his demonstrations, Mr. Pillai used a hollowed-out (60). Paragraph 2 “A spoon Mr Pillai insisted on using to stir the mixture was discovered to have been hollowed out and filled with petrol.” What was hollowed out? (60) spoon

23 Back in Tamil Nadu, however, Mr Pillai is regarded as something of a (61), especially by those who ride (62). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

24 Back in Tamil Nadu, however, Mr Pillai is regarded as something of a (61), especially by those who ride (62). Paragraph 2 “He has become a folk hero to motorists, producing 1,000 litres a day before hordes of cheering spectators.” How do they see Mr Pillai? (61) hero Motorists are people who drive cars, trucks, motorbikes or any other kind of vehicle. Find a vehicle that collocates well with “ride”. “Scooter riders …continue to have faith in him…” (62) scooters

25 He produces a thousand litres of fuel a day which is then sold to (63) at less than half the (64) price. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

26 He produces a thousand litres of fuel a day which is then sold to (63) at less than half the (64) price. Paragraph 1 “…motor scooter owners queue up to buy it a 10 rupees (HK$2.15) a litre, 15 rupees less than the cost of petrol.” He sells it to “motor scooter owners”, but we only have one blank. (63) motorists/people/ customers/etc. 10 rupees/litre is a discounted or special price. What kind of price is 25 rupees/litre? (64) regular

27 The demonstration took place at the office of his (65), Charles Cheung, with Mr Pillai surrounded by his family and friends. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

28 The demonstration took place at the office of his (65), Charles Cheung, with Mr Pillai surrounded by his family and friends. Paragraph 4 “…Charles Cheung, the managing director of Amalgamated CNG Vehicles, the agency which is backing Mr Pillai in Hong Kong.” What is his (Mr Pillai’s) relationship with Mr Cheung? (65) partner/backer/ etc.

29 Their presence was necessary in case the formula was (66), since M Pillai hasn’t yet got a (67) for his formula. 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

30 Their presence was necessary in case the formula was (66), since M Pillai hasn’t yet got a (67) for his formula. Paragraph 4 “… a retinue of family and friends looked on, making sure his formula did not fall into the wrong hands.” How can use one word to express “fall into the wrong hands”? (66) stolen (67) can be found in paragraph 3. “Mr Pillai says he has applied for a patent for his fuel and, until he receives it, refuses to reveal the plant used.” Why does Mr. Pillai need to be sure nobody will steal his idea? (67) patent

31 The demonstration appeared to be successful because the poorly-ventilated office was soon filled with (68). 1. Scientist Ramar Pillai Herbs into fuel Conspiracy Cheap 2. First – amazing Then – fraud Hometown ppl. believe 3. History of discovery How Secret 4. In HK Demonstration 5. % fuel Economical 6. Produce in HK?

32 The demonstration appeared to be successful because the poorly-ventilated office was soon filled with (68). Paragraph 4 After drawing off the oil, Mr Pillai demonstrated that it burned vigorously, as searing, eye-watering fumes filled the room.” What filled the room? (68) fumes/smoke


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