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Www.safetyontheweb.com Bloodborne Pathogens 1 The Premiere Resource for Environmental, Health, and Safety Training Solutions.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.safetyontheweb.com Bloodborne Pathogens 1 The Premiere Resource for Environmental, Health, and Safety Training Solutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bloodborne Pathogens 1 The Premiere Resource for Environmental, Health, and Safety Training Solutions

2 Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne Pathogens Universal Precautions

3 Bloodborne Pathogens 3 Introduction In this environment we deal with bloodborne pathogens every day - and we do so successfully because we all clearly understand the consequences. Everyone, no matter what your occupation, could encounter bloodborne pathogens. To protect yourself, it is vital that you understand what bloodborne pathogens are and the potential hazards they pose. And it is easy to keep yourself protected when you utilize these two simple things: common sense and universal precautions.

4 Bloodborne Pathogens 4 What bloodborne pathogens are Diseases that could be transmitted Potential exposure routes How to protect yourself and What to do if exposure does occur What bloodborne pathogens are Diseases that could be transmitted Potential exposure routes How to protect yourself and What to do if exposure does occur In this presentation we will discuss:

5 Bloodborne Pathogens 5 What Bloodborne Pathogens Are These materials can be transmitted through contact with contaminated blood and semen and vaginal secretions. Bloodborne pathogens may also be present in other body fluids like: urine, feces, nasal secretions, breast milk, vomit, tears, perspiration, and saliva. It is important to note here that if there is no visible trace of blood in these body fluids, the risk of disease transmission is extremely small. Bloodborne pathogens are infectious materials found in blood and other bodily fluids that cause disease in humans.

6 Bloodborne Pathogens 6 What Bloodborne Pathogens Are People at a higher risk of being exposed to bloodborne pathogens include healthcare workers, dental workers, laboratory technicians, law enforcement personnel, firefighters, housekeeping personnel, medical waste treatment employees, anyone providing first aid or emergency care to injured personnel, persons with more than one sexual partner, and injection drug users.

7 Bloodborne Pathogens 7 There are many diseases that can be transmitted by bloodborne pathogens including, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and other pathogens such as those that cause malaria and syphilis. Although HIV is the best known, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are the most common bloodborne pathogen diseases transmitted in the United States, with Hepatitis B much more common than Hepatitis at this time. Diseases That Could Be Transmitted While the odds of contracting a bloodborne pathogen are small, their potential danger is great.

8 Bloodborne Pathogens 8 Let’s take a quick look at these three transmittable diseases, starting with HIV. As you are probably aware, HIV or the human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS. The virus attacks your immune system and leaves you vulnerable to other types of diseases like cancer and pneumonia. Diseases That Could Be Transmitted n HIV n Hepatitis B n Hepatitis C n Hepatitis A n Leptospirosis n Bruccellosis n Malaria n Babesiosis n Syphilis n Relapsing Fever n Viral Hemorrhagic Fever n Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease n HIV n Hepatitis B n Hepatitis C n Hepatitis A n Leptospirosis n Bruccellosis n Malaria n Babesiosis n Syphilis n Relapsing Fever n Viral Hemorrhagic Fever n Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease

9 Bloodborne Pathogens 9 Diseases That Could Be Transmitted Many people live with HIV without showing any symptoms and the only way to know if a person is infected is a blood test. The same is true of Hepatitis. Both Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are contagious liver diseases that cause an inflammation of the liver. Many people live with HIV without showing any symptoms and the only way to know if a person is infected is a blood test. The same is true of Hepatitis. Both Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are contagious liver diseases that cause an inflammation of the liver.

10 Bloodborne Pathogens 10 Diseases That Could Be Transmitted Early symptoms are a lot like a mild flu, including: fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting. Extreme fatigue is a very common symptom of Hepatitis C. Both Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C can be either acute or chronic. Acute Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are short-term illnesses that occur within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis B virus or the Hepatitis C virus, respectively.

11 Bloodborne Pathogens 11 Diseases That Could Be Transmitted Acute Hepatitis B can sometimes lead to chronic Hepatitis B infection, which is a long-term illness that occurs when the Hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Chronic Hepatitis B is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems and even death. Fortunately, a vaccine is available for Hepatitis B. If you are exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials on a regular basis as part of your job, the Hepatitis B vaccines will be made available to you, by your employer, at no cost. More than 90% of those vaccinated will develop immunity to Hepatitis B. Acute Hepatitis C infection, however, often leads to chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems, and even death. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. Acute Hepatitis B can sometimes lead to chronic Hepatitis B infection, which is a long-term illness that occurs when the Hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Chronic Hepatitis B is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems and even death. Fortunately, a vaccine is available for Hepatitis B. If you are exposed to blood and other potentially infectious materials on a regular basis as part of your job, the Hepatitis B vaccines will be made available to you, by your employer, at no cost. More than 90% of those vaccinated will develop immunity to Hepatitis B. Acute Hepatitis C infection, however, often leads to chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems, and even death. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C.

12 Bloodborne Pathogens 12 Diseases That Could Be Transmitted Although HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are the three most commonly transmitted diseases, they are not the only bloodborne pathogens that can be transmitted. That’s why it’s important to protect yourself from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials. Key Point: More than 90% of those vaccinated will develop immunity to Hepatitis B. Unfortunately there is not vaccine for Hepatitis C. Although HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are the three most commonly transmitted diseases, they are not the only bloodborne pathogens that can be transmitted. That’s why it’s important to protect yourself from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials. Key Point: More than 90% of those vaccinated will develop immunity to Hepatitis B. Unfortunately there is not vaccine for Hepatitis C.

13 Bloodborne Pathogens 13 Potential Exposure Routes So, how does the everyday Joe or Jane become exposed to bloodborne pathogens? It’s simple really… The human skin acts as a natural barrier to bloodborne pathogens. Bloodborne pathogens on the skin can be washed away, without harm to the individual. But, when a bloodborne pathogen finds a way THROUGH the skin - through a body opening or a break in the skin - you could become infected. Examples of breaks in the skin include cuts, scrapes, abrasions, acne or open sores. Also, body openings such as the eyes, mouth and nose can become routes of entry if contaminated material is splashed or sprayed into them. The human skin acts as a natural barrier to bloodborne pathogens. Bloodborne pathogens on the skin can be washed away, without harm to the individual. But, when a bloodborne pathogen finds a way THROUGH the skin - through a body opening or a break in the skin - you could become infected. Examples of breaks in the skin include cuts, scrapes, abrasions, acne or open sores. Also, body openings such as the eyes, mouth and nose can become routes of entry if contaminated material is splashed or sprayed into them.

14 Bloodborne Pathogens 14 Contaminated material can also find a way into the body through a secondary means, such as when a person touches a contaminated tool and then touches their eyes, mouth, nose or open cut. For medical workers, one of the most common methods of exposure is by a needle stick. Contaminated material can also find a way into the body through a secondary means, such as when a person touches a contaminated tool and then touches their eyes, mouth, nose or open cut. For medical workers, one of the most common methods of exposure is by a needle stick. Potential Exposure Routes

15 Bloodborne Pathogens 15 In other work environments, however, the biggest threat of exposure to bloodborne pathogens comes from skin punctures by contaminated sharp objects. For instance, an infected person could get cut on a sharp piece of metal or glass. The metal or glass would then most likely become contaminated with blood. That same sharp piece of metal or glass could then cut you. The other person’s blood could then mix with yours and possibly infect you. It’s for situations like this that you need to utilize a little bit of common sense and take universal precautions to protect yourself! In other work environments, however, the biggest threat of exposure to bloodborne pathogens comes from skin punctures by contaminated sharp objects. For instance, an infected person could get cut on a sharp piece of metal or glass. The metal or glass would then most likely become contaminated with blood. That same sharp piece of metal or glass could then cut you. The other person’s blood could then mix with yours and possibly infect you. It’s for situations like this that you need to utilize a little bit of common sense and take universal precautions to protect yourself! Potential Exposure Routes

16 Bloodborne Pathogens 16 As the saying goes, “it’s better to be safe, than sorry.” How To Protect Yourself That’s why, if you are routinely exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials in your workplace, a written exposure control plan will be made available to you. The plan is designed to eliminate or cut down the risk of exposure to employees, like health care workers. It is reviewed and updated at least once a year and whenever necessary to include new or modified procedures which concern job exposure. If you have questions and a plan is required in your area, talk to your supervisor. That’s why, if you are routinely exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials in your workplace, a written exposure control plan will be made available to you. The plan is designed to eliminate or cut down the risk of exposure to employees, like health care workers. It is reviewed and updated at least once a year and whenever necessary to include new or modified procedures which concern job exposure. If you have questions and a plan is required in your area, talk to your supervisor.

17 Bloodborne Pathogens 17 The big question to ask right now is, “How do you know if someone is infected with a bloodborne pathogen?” And the common sense answer is: you don’t. So what should you do? How do you protect yourself? How To Protect Yourself

18 Bloodborne Pathogens 18 Take “Universal Precautions”, meaning treat all blood and other body fluids as if they are infectious, because you just don’t know. And because you don’t know who is infected and who isn’t, it is vital to use personal protective equipment, work practice controls and engineering controls to reduce exposure risks for all employees. Personal protective equipment, or PPE, acts as a barrier between you and infectious substances. It should be used whenever there’s a potential for exposure, such as when attending to an injured co-worker and when handling or disposing of contaminated objects or materials. Take “Universal Precautions”, meaning treat all blood and other body fluids as if they are infectious, because you just don’t know. And because you don’t know who is infected and who isn’t, it is vital to use personal protective equipment, work practice controls and engineering controls to reduce exposure risks for all employees. Personal protective equipment, or PPE, acts as a barrier between you and infectious substances. It should be used whenever there’s a potential for exposure, such as when attending to an injured co-worker and when handling or disposing of contaminated objects or materials. How To Protect Yourself

19 Bloodborne Pathogens 19 First aid or emergency response teams wear gloves and use CPR pocket masks or resuscitation bags to ensure that blood or other potentially infectious material does not make contact with their skin. You should do the same. ALWAYS wear gloves when there is any potential for hand contact with blood or body fluids. Before putting gloves on, check for holes, tears or punctures. Do not reuse disposable gloves. Utility gloves may be decontaminated and used again. If they are cracked, peeling, torn or punctured, however, do not reuse them. First aid or emergency response teams wear gloves and use CPR pocket masks or resuscitation bags to ensure that blood or other potentially infectious material does not make contact with their skin. You should do the same. ALWAYS wear gloves when there is any potential for hand contact with blood or body fluids. Before putting gloves on, check for holes, tears or punctures. Do not reuse disposable gloves. Utility gloves may be decontaminated and used again. If they are cracked, peeling, torn or punctured, however, do not reuse them. How To Protect Yourself

20 Bloodborne Pathogens 20 In more extreme medical fields, goggles, masks, glasses with solid side shields and chin length face shields used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles protect the eyes, nose and mouth from potentially infectious materials. Utilize work practice controls. Clean the affected area, any contaminated tools and any other items that may have been contaminated with a solution of ten parts water to one part common household bleach to effectively decontaminate the area. Remember to wear gloves and safety glasses to avoid direct contact with material that might be infected. If you’re dealing with broken glass, use a broom and a dustpan, or a pair of tongs to pick up the glass - do NOT use your hands. Bring the trash container to the broken glass, instead of carrying the glass across the room. In more extreme medical fields, goggles, masks, glasses with solid side shields and chin length face shields used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles protect the eyes, nose and mouth from potentially infectious materials. Utilize work practice controls. Clean the affected area, any contaminated tools and any other items that may have been contaminated with a solution of ten parts water to one part common household bleach to effectively decontaminate the area. Remember to wear gloves and safety glasses to avoid direct contact with material that might be infected. If you’re dealing with broken glass, use a broom and a dustpan, or a pair of tongs to pick up the glass - do NOT use your hands. Bring the trash container to the broken glass, instead of carrying the glass across the room. How To Protect Yourself

21 Bloodborne Pathogens 21 If there is any possibility that the glass could be contaminated with blood or infectious material, dispose of it in an appropriate puncture resistant and leak-proof sharps container marked with a biohazard label. Healthcare professionals, and in some cases other employees, may need to use needles and other sharp objects for medical purposes. In such cases, utilizing engineering controls like specially designed sharps containers is necessary. Needles and other sharp objects must be placed in these sharps containers. Sharps containers are generally orange or red-orange in color, puncture resistant, leak proof and marked with the biohazard label. To avoid being exposed to a needle stick, NEVER recap a needle and NEVER reach into a sharps container. If there is any possibility that the glass could be contaminated with blood or infectious material, dispose of it in an appropriate puncture resistant and leak-proof sharps container marked with a biohazard label. Healthcare professionals, and in some cases other employees, may need to use needles and other sharp objects for medical purposes. In such cases, utilizing engineering controls like specially designed sharps containers is necessary. Needles and other sharp objects must be placed in these sharps containers. Sharps containers are generally orange or red-orange in color, puncture resistant, leak proof and marked with the biohazard label. To avoid being exposed to a needle stick, NEVER recap a needle and NEVER reach into a sharps container. How To Protect Yourself

22 Bloodborne Pathogens 22 Once you’ve finished your clean-up, remove your personal protective clothing and equipment before leaving the work area. Place it in designated regulated waste containers for storage, decontamination or disposal. Remember to keep all regulated waste containers, any refrigerators or freezers that may contain blood or other potentially infectious materials, and any other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or possibly infected materials marked properly with red or orange-red biohazard labels. Once you’ve finished your clean-up, remove your personal protective clothing and equipment before leaving the work area. Place it in designated regulated waste containers for storage, decontamination or disposal. Remember to keep all regulated waste containers, any refrigerators or freezers that may contain blood or other potentially infectious materials, and any other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or possibly infected materials marked properly with red or orange-red biohazard labels. How To Protect Yourself

23 Bloodborne Pathogens 23 Once you’ve finished your clean-up, remove your personal protective clothing and equipment before leaving the work area. Place it in designated regulated waste containers for storage, decontamination or disposal. Remember to keep all regulated waste containers, any refrigerators or freezers that may contain blood or other potentially infectious materials, and any other containers used to store, transport or ship blood or possibly infected materials marked properly with red or orange-red biohazard labels. How To Protect Yourself

24 Bloodborne Pathogens 24 Once you’ve removed your gloves, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Since your skin is a barrier to bloodborne pathogens, you’ll want to keep it clean. Washing your hands frequently is an important way to prevent exposure. By utilizing universal precautions, personal protective equipment, workplace controls and engineering controls, you greatly reduce your risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. How To Protect Yourself

25 Bloodborne Pathogens 25 What To Do If Exposure Does Occur If you are exposed to potentially infected material, immediately wash the area of your body where exposure has occurred with soap and water. Then report the incident to your supervisor or other proper personnel. You and your supervisor should document the incident immediately. If you’ve exposed to Hepatitis B and you haven’t been vaccinated, you can still get the vaccination. If you get the vaccine within 24 hours, Hepatitis B infection may be prevented. That’s why immediately reporting any exposure is extremely important.

26 Bloodborne Pathogens 26 What To Do If Exposure Does Occur A blood test can be performed to determine if you have become infected. Your employer will be notified if a test is performed. However, all medical records will be kept confidential. No matter what the outcome of the test, the results will not be made available to your employer. Remember, use common sense. If you are exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials, wash the exposed area immediately, report the incident and get tested and/or vaccinated!

27 Bloodborne Pathogens 27 In this presentation, we’ve looked at what bloodborne pathogens are and how bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted from one person to another. We’ve learned how to prevent exposure in the workplace, and what to do if exposure does occur. Diseases caused by bloodborne pathogens can be very serious and you don’t know who could be infected. By utilizing both common sense and universal precautions, the chances of being infected in the workplace will remain minimal. Summary

28 Bloodborne Pathogens 28 Contact us at: or at Contact us at: or at


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