7 types of intel External Threat & Vulnerability Data - We continuously track new vulnerabilities and related attacks to assess how they impact information risk. Underground Intelligence - Surveillance of numerous online groups help us know what the bad guys are discussing, sharing, planning and doing. Net Intelligence - Over one million sensors are dispersed throughout our Internet backbone, enabling us to gather information on nefarious activity around the globe. Managed Security Services - Verizon Business manages and monitors firewalls, IDS, IPS, and other network devices for many of the world’s largest companies. Global Services - Internal data collection across Verizon’s extensive range of IT and security services. This is “real-world” data harvested as a byproduct of delivery. Investigative Response – Forensics & computer crime Investigations. Extensive metrics are systematically recorded on hundreds of data breach cases per year. ICSA Labs - ICSA Labs, an independent division of Verizon Business, performs vendor- neutral testing of hundreds of security products.
IR Case Data All data collected during cases worked by the Verizon Business Investigative Response team during 2008 Objective, credible, first-hand information on actual breaches 2008 Caseload: 90 confirmed breaches (>150 total engagements) 285 million compromised records (confirmed – not “data-at-risk”) 1/3 of these cases have been publicly disclosed (so far) About 50% of caseload comprised of sets of interrelated incidents –Same attacker(s), shared connections, identical circumstances, etc 15 arrests (and counting) 31% Retail, 30% Financial, 14% Food & Bev, remaining mixed Over 1/3 of investigations conducted outside the US
2009 DBIR: What’s New? Periodic data collection allowed for more detail –Much more info within the Hacking and Malware sections Responded to public requests and questions –Results also shown in % of records (was just % of breaches) New lines of study –PCI, Incident detection and response practices More thorough treatment and analysis More mature presentation –Better charts and graphs –No more pastel colors Plus, the bad guys were really busy (and, unfortunately, really successful) After a 4-year study of 500 breaches, what makes the 1-year sequel interesting?
Breach Sources External sources –Most breaches, nearly all records –90+% of breached records attributed to organized crime activity Internal sources –Roughly equal between end-users and admins Partner sources –Mostly hijacked third-party accounts/connections Impact Likelihood
Threats and Attacks Similar to previous 4 years for breach percentages Most breaches and records linked to Hacking & Malware Misuse is fairly common –Mostly admin abuse Deceit and social attacks –Involved a range of methods, vectors, and targets Physical attacks –Represent minority of caseload –Portable media in one case (but not essential to breach) Error is extremely common –Rarely the direct cause –Usually contributing factor (67%)
Breakdown of Hacking (64% of breaches) Default credentials and SQL injection most common Few and old vulnerabilities exploited Web Apps & Remote Access are main vectors Techniques Vectors Vulnerability Exploits
Breakdown of Malware (38% of breaches) Most malware installed by remote attacker Malware captures data or provides access/control Increasingly customized
Malcode: focus on softer targets Data in running memory: RAM scrapers. Created well after initial point of entry. Filter out string patterns & sequences within memory. Dump to file, encrypt and exfiltrate. Difficult to locate without forensic tools. Data in-transit: Simple packet-capture utilities. Exploit compliance-driven encryption requirements (ie. PCI:DSS, HIPAA). Footprint always unique. Undetectable by current anti-virus. Found only by searching for output data. Data in unallocated space: Capture data patterns from unused portion of disk. Example – expanding / contracting pagefiles. Windows particularly vulnerable. Sidesteps encryption of data at-rest & in-transit.
Attack Vectors & Targeting Directed attacks are last major evolution Cases seen in clearly related “groupings” Attacks leverage human staging point - “the insider” and ‘the vendor” Increasing at almost 1:1 rate with Partner sources More simultaneous attack vectors from 2008 than ever before. What’s next??
Unknown Unknowns Unknown data lower than ’04-’07 rates, but still accounts for 2/3 of compromised records –Discovery and classification Unknown privileges up –Account review An asset unknown to the organization Data unknowingly stored on an asset Unknown or forgotten external IT connections Accounts and Privileges not known to exist
Recommendations Recap from previous report (They still apply) Align process with policy Achieve “Essential” then worry about “Excellent” Secure Business Partner Connections Create a Data Retention Plan Control data with transaction zones Monitor event logs Create an Incident Response Plan Increase awareness Engage in mock incident testing
Recommendations, Cont’d New recommendations (Based on 2008 cases) Changing default credentials is key Avoid shared credentials User Account Review Application Testing and Code Review Smarter Patch Management Strategies Human Resources Termination Procedures Enable Application Logs and Monitor Define “Suspicious” and “Anomalous” (then look for whatever “It” is)
Summary 2008 saw much of the same, but new twists and trends were observed Sources: Similar distribution; organized crime behind most large breaches –Organized criminal groups driving evolution of cybercrime Attacks: Criminals exploit errors, hack into systems, install malware –2008 saw more targeted attacks, especially against orgs processing or storing large volumes of desirable data –Highly difficult attacks not common but very damaging –Large increase in customized, intelligent malware Assets and Data: Focus is online cashable data –Nearly all breached from servers & apps –New data types (PIN data) sought which requires new techniques and targets Discovery: Takes months and is accomplished by 3 rd parties Prevention: The basics–if done consistently–are effective in most cases –Increasing divergence between Targets of Opportunity and Targets of Choice »ToO: Remove blatant opportunities through basic controls »ToC: Same as above but prepare for very determined, very skilled attacks –Initial hack appears the easiest point of control