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Introduction  Low electrification rates worldwide  Expensive or dangerous means of energy  In the US, natural disasters cause people to lose power.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction  Low electrification rates worldwide  Expensive or dangerous means of energy  In the US, natural disasters cause people to lose power."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction  Low electrification rates worldwide  Expensive or dangerous means of energy  In the US, natural disasters cause people to lose power for extended amounts of time.

3 Solar Power  Solar power generation is ideal for these situations.  It is virtually harmless to the environment and inexpensive with greatest cost from battery replacement.  PV modules convert solar radiation into DC electricity.

4 Overview of System

5 Engineering Requirements  Performance The PV array will include a solar tracker which will track the Sun with a maximum error of 15°.  The PV array will have module efficiency greater than 13%.  Economic The cost for the entire system (parts and labor) should not exceed $2,500.  Energy The system should be able to supply a load demand of at least 500 Watt-hours per day.  Maintainability The system should have a robust design such that failed components can be replaced easily by a technician.  Operational The system should be able to operate in a temperature range of 0 to 75°C. The PV array will be positioned such that it is not shaded by trees, buildings, or other physical objects at any time.  Availability The PV array will output dc power from sunrise to sunset, 365 days a year, except during unsuitable conditions (cloud cover, inclement weather, e.g.)

6 Grape Solar 100W Solar Panel  $189.99 from Costco  36 cell Monocrystalline  18.5 Vmpp, 5.42 Impp  47.0” tall x 21.1” wide x 1.57” thick  17.6 lbs  Approximately 19% efficiency  Average daily production  Run a 60W light bulb for 4 hours  Power a laptop for 5 hours  Operate a 25” TV for 2 hours through an inverter  Fully charge over 30 cell phone batteries.

7 2-Axis Tracking  The percentage of incident solar energy the panel can convert into electrical energy depends on the amount of energy in the solar radiation but also the angle between the radiation and the module.  2-axis tracking keeps that angle at 90 degrees, maximizing conversion efficiency.  34% increase in energy absorption, as opposed to no tracking.

8 Solar Tracking  Began with LED based tracking using photodiodes  Implementation of Arduino to increase accuracy  Replaced photodiodes with solar cells to increase output power

9 PCB Schematics Voltage Regulator Solar Tracker

10 The Solar Tracker  Analog Design Recap  Project advancements - Arduino Usage - Servos/Recalibration - Power Consumption  Programming - Ideal - Non-Ideal

11 Analog Design Recap  Comparator  Compares Solar Cell to Vref  Vref makes tracking accurate  Outputs to Logic Circuit  TTL Logic Issue

12 Analog Design Recap  Uses output from comparator  Gives proper input to H- Bridge  H-Bridge Drives the motor CommandR1R2R3R4Sensor LSensor R Stop/Coast010100 Clockwise001110 C-Clockwise110001 Brake111111

13 Analog Design Recap  Found about 35-40 Degrees was best  Test done indoors and outdoors  Tests proved little recalibration was needed  Fixed Swivel Issue

14 Analog Design Recap  Added multi-turn pot to increase accuracy  Arduino doesn’t need adjusting  Current approx. Vref Inside Vref2.9v Inside Solar Cell3.5v Outside Vref6.25v Outside Solar Cell~6.80v

15 Project advancements  Replaced analog circuitry (LC/H-Bridge)  Allows programming of non-idea conditions  Can power prototype servos  Takes input from analog comparators, then controls servos based on the analog input

16 Project Advancements

17 Servo Positioning  Gearbox coupled to the shaft  Used to directly move the solar panel for Azimuth and Altitude  No weight put on the servo itself  Loosening the coupler allows calibration of servos

18 Recalibration of Servos  Calibrated servos to 0 th degree  Issue with Altitude coupling  Resolved issue by recalibrating  Adjusted ~20 Degrees

19 Integrating the Solar Tracker  Similar to the prototype but larger  Still using the same circuitry  Tracker added to side of system  Adjusted Vref for sunlight

20 Servo Power Consumption  Power less than expected  HS-805BB Servo consumes.2 -.5A  Servo specification show.8A or higher  Possible to reach 1A under certain weather conditions

21 Programming: Ideal



24 Programming: Non-Ideal


26 System Testing

27 Charge Controller Protect Battery Life – Preventing Overvoltage – Preventing Overcurrent – Displays Status Voltage State of Charge

28 Charge Controller

29 Components Solid State Relay – 4 port operation – Driven with low voltage input 10.67 V

30 Components Voltage Regulator – With heatsink to withstand 8 A – 13.75 = 1.25 * (1 + R2/R1)

31 Components Current Sensor – Hall Effect Sensor – Current flows through terminals – Output to Arduino analog pin – 133 mV/A

32 Components Voltage Divider

33 Total System Overview

34 Panel Testing Elevation Angle (in degrees up from horizon) Voltage (in Volts DC) 020.7 9020.2 4520.2 5820.4 Elevation = 0° Elevation = 45° Elevation = 90° Elevation = 58°

35 The Battery Discover EV Traction Dry Cell: EV24A-A  12 V  85 AH  Dry Cell battery – has virtually identical performance characteristics to SLA’s.  $200

36 Inverter Cobra CPI880 800 W Two AC receptacles and a USB outlet Will Power – Arduino/Charge Controller – Motors – Output power Inverter shown connected to battery

37 Battery Capability 20 HR rating = 85 Amp Hours Can power a constant 4.25 Amp load for 20 hours Wattage levels much higher when connected to panel Graph shows battery data for the battery isolated from the charging system

38 Construction

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