Presentation on theme: "Quick recap quiz: 5 mins! 1. Biofeedback is part of the _____ approach 2. How many participants were there in Budzynski’s study? 3. What type of method."— Presentation transcript:
Quick recap quiz: 5 mins! 1. Biofeedback is part of the _____ approach 2. How many participants were there in Budzynski’s study? 3. What type of method did Meichenbaum use? 4. What did Meichenbaum conclude? 5. In what ways were both studies ethically dubious? 6. What increased the reliability of Budzynski’s study? 7. What increased the validity in Meichenbaum’s study?
Waxler-Morrison Social: Relationships and cancer survival
Background: A strong, social support network can be critical in helping individuals through stressful situations. It has been shown that cancer growth is amplified by stress and therefore by reducing this stress, there are positive outcomes on the cancer.
Aim: To look at how women’s social relationships influence her response to breast cancer and survival.
Methodology: A quasi experiment where women were already diagnosed with breast cancer. Used questionnaires and 18 interviews plus an examination of medical records. The women naturally fell into categories based on social support networks.
Procedure: 133 women all under 55 years old who were referred to a clinic in Vancouver after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Mailed questionnaires to gather information about their demography and existing social networks. Questions included education level, who they were responsible for- children- contact with friends and family and perceived support from others. Details of their diagnosis were taken from their medical records as were their survival and recurrence rates.
Results: 6 aspects of social networks were significantly linked with survival; ◦ Marital status ◦ Support from friends ◦ Contact with friends ◦ Total support ◦ Social networks ◦ Employment Qualitative data showed that practical support, such as childcare, were the concrete sources of support.
Conclusions: Several characteristics of women's social networks are significantly linked with survival rates. So, the more social support networks, the higher the rate of survival in breast cancer patients. It has been acknowledged that the main factor influencing survival is still the state of the cancer at the time of diagnosis
Issues: Ecological validity ◦ Quasi experiment so was naturally occurring- no manipulation Demand characteristics ◦ Questionnaires can lead to social desirability- not wanting to seem unsupported Subjective ◦ Questionnaires and not physical measurements
Debates: Individual vs Situational ◦ Your social support networks influence survival Reductionism vs Holism Determinism vs Free-will Usefulness ◦ How to reduce stress and therefore increase survival rates in women diagnosed with breast cancer. ◦ The power of the social group on illness recovery rates –applied to other illnesses
Evaluation Exam Questions Homework Write an essay plan for timed assessment on Wednesday: Compare the techniques for managing stress. (15) Use the work you have done in today’s lesson.
Compare requires a response that looks at similarities or contrasts in juxtaposition. The specification refers to cognitive, behavioural and social (support) approaches so SIT, biofeedback or self-help groups can be compared such as drug therapy, yoga or humanistic approaches for example. Issues such as reductionism, effectiveness, individual differences and possibly ethnocentrism may be likely to feature. Where the technique is covered within a study the commentary can be credited where issues are explicitly relevant to techniques.
Top band candidates will provide an accurate response specific to the question and show extension, for example through evaluating the strengths or weaknesses of an approach to managing stress, the effectiveness of an approach in dealing with stress or contrasting approaches to managing stress. Second band will be accurate and specific to title but may, for example struggle in its attempt to assess; third band will be superficial; or accurate or appropriate material but not used to effectively or precisely address question. The bottom band is for responses that may be flawed but have some creditworthy material included.
Compare and contrast Reductionism/holism A To what extent do the theories/studies support psychology as a science? B Nature/nurture C Ethics D Application of research A Usefulness B Validity C Reliability D Approach A Determinism/freewill B Research methods C Subjective/objective D This task will help you with your homework – you can select your best points to write your answer with
Exit Q So, which do you think is the best method of managing stress, and why?