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W HAT IS PSYCHOLOGY ?. R ECAP : P SYCHOLOGY IS ….. The study of behavior and mental processes Any action that people can observe and measure Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "W HAT IS PSYCHOLOGY ?. R ECAP : P SYCHOLOGY IS ….. The study of behavior and mental processes Any action that people can observe and measure Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 W HAT IS PSYCHOLOGY ?

2 R ECAP : P SYCHOLOGY IS ….. The study of behavior and mental processes Any action that people can observe and measure Behavior Private, unobservable mental processes such as perception, thought and problem solving Cognitive Activities

3 R ECAP : THE G OALS OF P SYCHOLOGY ARE … DescribeExplainPredictInfluence

4 R ECAP : P SYCHOLOGY IS LIKE A TREE BECAUSE …

5 P SYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE IS BOTH ….. A Social Science—deal with the structure of human society and nature and interactions of individuals who make up society And A Natural Science—concerned with the nature of the physical world

6 I N THAT SCIENTIFIC PROCESS P SYCHOLOGISTS … “Evaluate the “what, how and why of a PRINCIPLE of the human experience by developing a THEORY in which they often create a PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT to achieve their goals.”

7 I N THAT SCIENTIFIC PROCESS P SYCHOLOGISTS … “Evaluate the “what, how and why of a PRINCIPLE of the human experience by developing a THEORY in which they often create a PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT to achieve their goals.” Principle: a basic truth or law that is common to the human experience Theory: a statement that attempts to explain why things are and why they happen the way they do. Psychological Construct : a theoretical concept that enables one to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched or measured directly

8 A S A S CIENCE IT EMPLOYS THE …. QuestionHypothesisExperimentResults AnalysisConclusion

9 F AMOUS P SYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

10 S TRUCTURALISM AND W ILLIAM W UNDT Wundt: Trained as a physiologist (study of how body works) is considered the first psychologist. Focus solely on working of the mind. Structuralism Defined: Study of the basic elements of how the mind make up the mental experiences. Done through subject doing introspection reports.

11 F UNCTIONALISM AND W ILLIAM J AMES o James: Considered the father of American psychology; influenced by Darwin’s theory of survival of fittest o Functionalism Defined: the study of the function rather than the structure of the mind o Concerned with the function or the purpose of mental process; the “why” not the “how.” For James, how did our thought processes promote survival

12 C ONTEMPORARY P SYCHOLOGICAL P ERSPECTIVES PerspectiveSubject MatterKey Assumption PsychoanalyticUnconscious processes, early childhood experiences Unconscious motives influence behavior LearningEnvironmental influences, learning, observational learning Personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development SocioculturalEthnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status Sociocultural, biological, and psychological factors create individual differences

13 F REUD AND P SYCHOANALYSIS Psychoanalysis - Study of the unconscious - Belief that all behavior is motivated by psychological processes by psychodynamic conflicts within ourselves - Sexual and aggressive instincts, clashing with society’s rules, generated many hidden conflicts

14 J OHN B. WATSON AND B EHAVIORISM Behaviorism - Theory of thought that does not address consciousness, but observable behavior - Belief that learning is the most important cause of behavior

15 “If I had enough control over the environment, I could create learning experiences that would turn any infant into a doctor, lawyer, or even a criminal.” - John B. Watson

16 A BRAHAM M ASLOW AND H UMANISM “If you plan on being anything less than what You are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life.”

17 C ONTEMPORARY P SYCHOLOGICAL P ERSPECTIVES PerspectiveSubject MatterKey Assumption PsychoanalyticUnconscious processes, early childhood experiences Unconscious motives influence behavior LearningEnvironmental influences, learning, observational learning Personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development SocioculturalEthnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status Sociocultural, biological, and psychological factors create individual differences

18 C ONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES PerspectiveSubject MatterKey Assumption BiologicalNervous system, glands, hormones, genetic factors Biological processes influence behavior and mental processes EvolutionaryPhysical traits, social behavior Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations CognitiveInterpretation of mental images, thinking, language Perceptions and thoughts influence behavior HumanisticSelf-conceptPeople make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences

19 Y OUR T ASK Bluto, the neighborhood bully, is constantly teasing the other children on his block. Explain Bluto’s behavior using your assigned psychological approach.

20 Example from an Evolutionary Perspective…. Bluto’s aggressive behavior is symptomatic of our primal instincts of survival of the fittest.

21 OTHER POSSIBLE ANSWER… Biological: Bluto’s aggressive behavior may be caused by abnormal brain structures, an imbalance in brain chemistry and overactive hormones. Cognitive: Bluto views the world as a hostile place, and his decision-making processes have let him to the conclusion that aggression is the best way to combat such hostility. Psychoanalytic: Bluto harbors strong aggressive instincts in his unconscious mind, and these instincts are driving his behavior toward other children in the neighborhood. Learning: Bluto’s aggression towards other children because he has observed others in his life deal with problems aggressively.


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