2Behavior Cognitive Activities Recap: Psychology is…..The study of behavior and mental processesBehaviorAny action that people can observe and measureCognitive ActivitiesPrivate, unobservable mental processes such as perception, thought and problem solving
3Recap: the Goals of Psychology are… DescribeExplainPredictInfluence
5Psychology as a science is both ….. A Social Science—deal with the structure of human society and nature and interactions of individuals who make up societyAndA Natural Science—concerned with the nature of the physical world
6In that scientific process Psychologists… “Evaluate the “what, how and why of a PRINCIPLE of the human experience by developing a THEORY in which they often create a PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT to achieve their goals.”
7In that scientific process Psychologists… “Evaluate the “what, how and why of a PRINCIPLE of the human experience by developing a THEORY in which they often create a PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCT to achieve their goals.”Principle: a basic truth or law that is common to the human experienceTheory: a statement that attempts to explain why things are and why they happen the way they do.Psychological Construct: a theoretical concept that enables one to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched or measured directly
8As a Science it employs the …. QuestionHypothesisExperimentResults AnalysisConclusion
10Structuralism and William Wundt Trained as a physiologist (study of how body works) is considered the first psychologist. Focus solely on working of the mind.Structuralism Defined:Study of the basic elements of how the mind make up the mental experiences.Done through subject doing introspection reports.
11Functionalism and William James Considered the father of American psychology; influenced by Darwin’s theory of survival of fittestFunctionalism Defined:the study of the function rather than the structure of the mindConcerned with the function or the purpose of mental process; the “why” not the “how.” For James, how did our thought processes promote survival
13Freud and Psychoanalysis Study of the unconsciousBelief that all behavior is motivated by psychological processes by psychodynamic conflicts within ourselvesSexual and aggressive instincts, clashing with society’s rules, generated many hidden conflicts
14John B. watson and Behaviorism Theory of thought that does not address consciousness, but observable behaviorBelief that learning is the most important cause of behavior
15“If I had enough control over the environment, I could create learning experiences that would turn any infant into a doctor, lawyer, or even a criminal.” - John B. Watson
16Abraham Maslow and Humanism “If you plan on being anything less than what You are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life.”
18Contemporary psychological perspectives Subject MatterKey AssumptionBiologicalNervous system, glands, hormones, genetic factorsBiological processes influence behavior and mental processesEvolutionaryPhysical traits, social behaviorAdaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generationsCognitiveInterpretation of mental images, thinking, languagePerceptions and thoughts influence behaviorHumanisticSelf-conceptPeople make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences
19Your TaskBluto, the neighborhood bully, is constantly teasing the other children on his block. Explain Bluto’s behavior using your assigned psychological approach.
20Example from an Evolutionary Perspective…. Bluto’s aggressive behavior is symptomatic of our primal instincts of survival of the fittest.
21OTHER POSSIBLE ANSWER… Biological: Bluto’s aggressive behavior may be caused by abnormal brain structures, an imbalance in brain chemistry and overactive hormones.Cognitive: Bluto views the world as a hostile place, and his decision-making processes have let him to the conclusion that aggression is the best way to combat such hostility.Psychoanalytic: Bluto harbors strong aggressive instincts in his unconscious mind, and these instincts are driving his behavior toward other children in the neighborhood.Learning: Bluto’s aggression towards other children because he has observed others in his life deal with problems aggressively.21