Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Status Offenders and Nonviolent Offenders"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 Status Offenders and Nonviolent Offenders Juvenile JusticeChapter 5Status Offenders and Nonviolent Offenders
2Measuring the Number of Juvenile Offenses Committed Three methods used to measure the nature and extent of unlawful acts by juvenilesUniform Crime Report (UCR)Complied by FBI from 15,000 police departmentsDivides crime into Part I and Part II crimesPart I includes eight major crimes: homicide and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, arson and motor vehicle theft.80 – 90% of children under the age of 18 commit crimes that they could be arrested for BUT Only 3% of youth are actually arrested.Other sources of official stats come from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
3Measuring the Number of Juvenile Offenses Committed Self-ReportsDark Figure of CrimeCrime not known to officialscrime not gathered from official stats, but by self-reports.Self-reports include one-on-one interviews, surveys and anonymous questionnaires
4Measuring the Number of Juvenile Offenses Committed Victimization DataNational Crime Victimization SurveyU.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics and U.S. Census Bureau2 X’s year on 50,000 people 12 years and olderGather information about crime, including those not reported to police.
5STATUS OFFENDERS Offenses that an adult would not be arrested for. Truancy, curfew violations, running away, alcohol use, incorrigibility.142,000 youth arrested for running away in 2000Truancy is most frequent offense for youth below the age of 15Curfew violations most common status offense154,700 juveniles arrested for curfew and loitering violations in 2001Liquor violations most frequent offense for youth 16 years and olderBinge Drinking reported in 2 out of 5 college studentsLinked to 1,400 student deaths
6STATUS OFFENDERS Alcohol and Drug Use Computer Crimes 139,238 arrested for drug abuse92,326 arrested for liquor law violations13,397 arrested for drunkenness13,971 arrested for DUIComputer CrimesJuveniles use computers to hack into other systems, counterfeit money, traffic in child porn and stealing passwords from internet providers
7Juvenile DelinquentsJuvenile delinquent is defined as a youth who commits an act that would be considered a crime if committed by an adultCharacteristics of juvenile DelinquentSocially assertiveDefiantAmbivalent about authorityResentfulHostileSuspiciousDestructiveImpulsiveLacking of self-control
8Juvenile Arrest Statistics Between 1980 and 2000 juvenile arrests for violent crimes increased more for females than malesAlthough Blacks make-up for only 16% of the juvenile pop., black youth accounted for:41% of motor vehicle theft arrests28% of drug abuse violations26% of larceny-theft25% for curfew violations
9Juvenile Arrest Statistics Table 5.5 Arrest by age. 2001Delinquency tends to increase with age, peaking in mid-teens then drops significantly by age 21 in Part I crimes
10Vandalism Experiments: Broken-Window Theory Stanford psychologist Phillip Zimbardo place two cars without license plates and their hoods up in the following places:Bronx, New YorkPalo Alto CaliforniaBroken-Window TheoryUnattended property becomes fair game for people out to have fun.In 2000, 114,000 juveniles arrested for vandalismDown in 2001 with 71,962 arrests
11Other Part I Crimes Motor Vehicle Theft: Larceny-Theft Arson Burglary: 2000, 50,800 arrest resulting in a 51% decrease from 1991Larceny-TheftMost frequent crime for juvenilesStreaming: band of juvenile shoplift from stores363,500 arrestsArsonWith exception of runaways and loitering, arson is the offense with greater proportion of arrestsAverage of 415 arrest in 1980’sIncrease of 53% in 2000Juveniles accounted for 49% of all arson arrests.Burglary:In 2000, 95,800 arrests for ages 10-172001 down to 61,623
12Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency Biological TheoryCriminals are born not madeGenetic abnormalityViolence and aggression associated with the presence of certain chemicals in the brain.Richard Speck who murdered 8 nurses, had one extra male chromosome.
13Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency BEHAVIORAL TheoriesCriminals are made not bornPeople become who they are because of their life experiencesChildren first learn from their families their rules of conductWrongdoing is reflected by what was learnedChildren who are corrected by their parents/guardians are more likely to conform to society rulesIf not corrected, they are likely to ignore society rules.
14Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency Sociological TheoriesTake behavioral position one step forward.During socialization process, children likely to learn antisocial behaviors through their social and cultural environmentsDelinquency often begins in school.Most youths will test limits with theft/shoplifting, but they usually outgrow this
15Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency Psychological ApproachesMost delinquent youth have to deal with poverty and/or destructive relationshipsUnhealthy environments can lead to a disturbed personality structure.Adolescence is crisis…….with added psychological disturbances, problems worsen.Emotional foundation that is weak is related to delinquency
16Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency Acting Out behaviors are a major characteristic of delinquencyLack of self-control and impulsesDesire for immediate gratificationMay give youth a sense of importanceA way to overcome feelings of inadequacy and inferiority
17Recap of Causes that Contribute to Delinquency Other factors include:DivorceAlcohol and/or Drug abuseDiminished supervision of childrenFamily Criminal HistoryTransient Family patterns (moving all the time)Special Education needs or ADD
18Development PathwaysDevelopmental pathways is a progressive process where delinquent behavior occurs.Stages occur over timeSee Figure 5.3 on page 159Authority Pathway:Stubbornness & disobedienceCan lead to running awayCovert Behavior: Property crimesOvert Behavior: Violence