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Recap: Vowels & Consonants V – central “sound” of the syllable C – outer “shell” of the syllable (C) V (C) (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)

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1 Recap: Vowels & Consonants V – central “sound” of the syllable C – outer “shell” of the syllable (C) V (C) (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)

2 Recap: Vowels & Consonants V – central “sound” of the syllable C – outer “shell” of the syllable

3 Syllabic Consonants V – central “sound” of the syllable C – outer “shell” of the syllable button little teacher LPD

4 Consonants 3 features: Manner Place Voicing

5 How much constriction? plosive: completely blocked fricative: partly blocked approximant: slightly hindered nasalization Does the air flow through both the nose and the mouth, or just the mouth? 1 Manner of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features affricate: plosive + fricative

6 Plosive (stop) Fricative Affricate Nasal Lateral Approximant 1 Manner of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features

7 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Where in the mouth does the constriction occur? What parts of the mouth are involved (lips, teeth, tongue, roof of the mouth)?

8 bilabial labiodental dental alveolar palatal velar glottal 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features

9 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)

10 Consonants:plosives The following slides were made using Daniel Currie Hall’s website at anhall/phonetics/sammy.html

11 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)

12 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)

13 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)

14 2 Place of Articulation Consonants: 3 phonetic features Plosives: bilabial alveolar velar (palatal)

15 3 Voicing Consonants: 3 phonetic features Are the vocal chords vibrating or not? REMEMBER THE TERMS FORTIS and LENIS (at least until the next slideshow)

16 Features: unvoiced bilabial stop p The six RP plosives

17 Features: voiced bilabial stop b The six RP plosives

18 Features: unvoiced alveolar stop t The six RP plosives

19 Features: voiced alveolar stop d The six RP plosives

20 Features: unvoiced velar stop k The six RP plosives

21 Features: voiced velar stop g The six RP plosives

22 bilabial alveolar velar (palatal) Recap: Plosives

23 labiodental dental alveolar post-alveolar palato-alveolar Places of articulation: fricatives

24 Features: unvoiced bilabial stop p pipepipe

25 Features: voiced bilabial stop b babybaby

26 (Features: unvoiced bilabial fricative)

27 (Features: voiced bilabial fricative) vamos

28 Features: unvoiced labiodental fricative f fine, life

29 Features: voiced labiodental fricative v very clever

30 Features: unvoiced dental fricative think

31 Features: voiced dental fricative ð this

32 Features: unvoiced alveolar stop t tart

33 Features: voiced alveolar stop d diddid

34 Features: unvoiced alveolar fricative s sea

35 Features: voiced alveolar fricative z zero

36 Features: unvoiced postalveolar fricative she, pressure

37 Features: voiced postalveolar fricative measure

38 Features: unvoiced glottal fricative h home

39

40

41 Wells, under “Articulation”

42 f,v

43

44 ,ð =þ

45 ð

46 Affricates There are no affricates in Icelandic, but if you’ve mastered the post-alveolar fricatives they should cause no problems chess Jess fortis lenis

47 Don’t forget to make a clear distinction between the fortis and lenis forms: rich - ridge larch – large search – surge not only with the voicing of, but also by clipping caused by Affricates

48 SIBILANTS

49 sea ship zero measure church judge

50 sí sjipp seró mesjúr tsörts dsöds

51 Problems with sibilants Icelandic has only 1 sibilant: English has 4: and two afficates:

52 Problems with sibilants Spelling is a poor indication of which sibilant is used VOICING of s or z is particularly badly represented –base phase loose choose –rates clothes wages NO RULE RULE! sz s z

53 plural – the dog gave two short barks possessive – the dog’s bark, the dogs’ barks 3rd person sg. – this dog barks abbreviation for is – his bark’s worse than his bite abbreviation for has – his bark’s been recorded -s, -’s, -s’, -es

54 cats cat’s cats’ gets barks - -s, -’s, -s’, -es dogs dog’s dog’s runs mews - fishes fish’s fishes’ masses catches judges roses Rose’s boxes Butch’s

55 2 1

56 Nasals The following slides were made using Daniel Currie Hall’s website at anhall/phonetics/sammy.html

57 Features: voiced bilabial stop b b

58 Features: voiced bilabial nasal m

59 Features: voiced alveolar stop d

60 Features: voiced alveolar nasal n

61 Features: voiced velar stop g

62 Features: voiced velar nasal

63

64 Features: voiced bilabial nasal m

65 Features: unvoiced bilabial nasal m o

66 Features: voiced alveolar nasal n

67 Features: unvoiced alveolar nasal n o

68 Features: voiced velar nasal

69 Features: unvoiced velar nasal o

70 English: 3 nasals Icelandic: 10 nasals

71 SHORTLONGUNVOICED BILAB ALV PAL VEL

72 ng? singer finger hanger anger sting stink

73

74 longer longest younger youngest stronger strongest EXCEPTIONS:


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