Presentation on theme: "Recap Biosphere – represents all animal and plant life on Earth and the environments in which they live Systems Concept Input Process Output Input."— Presentation transcript:
Recap Biosphere – represents all animal and plant life on Earth and the environments in which they live Systems Concept Input Process Output Input Process Output –Analyze –Design –Control Cybernetics – science of how systems are regulated –Open-loop –Closed-loop
The livelihoods of 75% of the world’s poor will continue to depend on agriculture for the foreseeable future. At the same time, rising food prices are likely to make problems of hunger and poverty worse for urban and rural people. Research that produces innovation in agriculture – biosystems engineering - is therefore more important than ever for reducing poverty. The livelihoods of 75% of the world’s poor will continue to depend on agriculture for the foreseeable future. At the same time, rising food prices are likely to make problems of hunger and poverty worse for urban and rural people. Research that produces innovation in agriculture – biosystems engineering - is therefore more important than ever for reducing poverty.
Some areas you can do Research on increasing productivity from all farming systems Specific technological and engineering innovations Research on the use of low cost technologies in agriculture Support for indigenous knowledge systems of crop and animal production
Sustainability Issues Food System AgricultureEnvironment
Renewable Natural Resources Fisheries, forestry, water and land resources Provide income for majority of population Provide vast majority of exports Supply raw materials to industry Feed the population Capable of generating wealth continuously through good management systems
Understand the Game Life Supporting Resources are Declining Consumption of Life Supporting Resources are Rising Population, living standards, productivity Natural disasters, development, environment, fossil fuels, land use
Sustain Keep alive or in existence (Membuat terus hidup atau wujud) (Membuat terus hidup atau wujud) Keep an effort going, maintain (Meneruskan sesuatu usaha, mempertahankan) (Meneruskan sesuatu usaha, mempertahankan)
Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Sustainable Development Most societies aspire to achieve economic development to secure rising standards of living, both for themselves and for future generations. They also seek to protect and enhance their environment, now and for their children. Reconciling these two aspirations is at the heart of sustainable development.
Sustainable Development To provide an adequate supply of food and other products in an efficient manner. To minimise consumption of non- renewable and other resources. To safeguard the quality of soil, water and the air and to preserve, where feasible, biodiversity in the landscape.
Principles of Sustainable Development Economic development is sought by societies not only to satisfy basic material needs, but also to provide the resources to improve the quality of life in other domains, meeting the demand for health care, education and a good environment. Economic development is sought by societies not only to satisfy basic material needs, but also to provide the resources to improve the quality of life in other domains, meeting the demand for health care, education and a good environment. Many forms of economic development make demands upon the environment; they use natural resources which are sometimes in limited supply, and generate by-products of pollution and waste. Many forms of economic development make demands upon the environment; they use natural resources which are sometimes in limited supply, and generate by-products of pollution and waste.
Principles of Sustainable Development The right kind of economic activity can protect or enhance the environment. These include: –energy efficiency measures, –improved technology and techniques of management, –better product design and marketing, –waste minimization, –environmentally friendly farming practices, –making better use of land and buildings, and –improved transport efficiency.
Challenge The challenge of sustainable development is to promote ways of encouraging the use of various kinds of environmentally friendly economic activity, and of discouraging environmentally damaging activities. The challenge of sustainable development is to promote ways of encouraging the use of various kinds of environmentally friendly economic activity, and of discouraging environmentally damaging activities.
Sustainable Development Strategy Social progress which recognizes the needs of everyone Effective protection of the environment Prudent use of natural resources Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment
Definition of Sustainability Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland (1987)
Concepts It contains within it two key concepts: The concepts of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given, and The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environments ability to meet present and future needs.
Other Definitions Sustainable development involves devising a social and economic system, which ensures that these goals are sustained, i.e. that real incomes rise, that educational standards increase, that the health of the nation improves, that the general quality of life is advanced. Sustainable development involves devising a social and economic system, which ensures that these goals are sustained, i.e. that real incomes rise, that educational standards increase, that the health of the nation improves, that the general quality of life is advanced. Pearce, Makandia & Barbier (1989) Pearce, Makandia & Barbier (1989)
Other Definitions Sustainable development, sustainable growth, and sustainable use have been used interchangeably, as if their meanings were the same. They are not. Sustainable growth is a contradiction in terms: nothing physical can grow indefinitely. Sustainable use, is only applicable to renewable resources. Sustainable development is used in this strategy to mean: improving the quality of human life whilst living within the carrying capacity of the ecosystems. UCN, UNEP, WWF (1991) UCN, UNEP, WWF (1991)
Other Definitions Development is about realising resource potential. Sustainable development of renewable natural resources implies respecting limits to the development process, even though these limits are adjustable by technology. The sustainability of technology may be judged by whether it increases production, but retains its other environmental and other limits.
Sustainable Agricultural System A sustainable agricultural system is one that can indefinitely meet the requirements for food and fibre at socially acceptable, economical and environmental costs. A sustainable agricultural system is one that can indefinitely meet the requirements for food and fibre at socially acceptable, economical and environmental costs. Crossen (1992) Crossen (1992)
Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable agriculture is a system that can evolve indefinitely toward greater human utility, greater efficiency of resource use and a balance with the environment which is favourable to humans and most other species. Sustainable agriculture is a system that can evolve indefinitely toward greater human utility, greater efficiency of resource use and a balance with the environment which is favourable to humans and most other species. Harwood (1990)
Sustainable Agriculture We thus define agricultural sustainability as the ability to maintain productivity, whether as a field or farm or nation, We thus define agricultural sustainability as the ability to maintain productivity, whether as a field or farm or nation, Where Where output of valued product output of valued product productivity = productivity = per unit of resource input. per unit of resource input. Conway & Barbier (1990) Conway & Barbier (1990)
Caretaker of both Natural and Human Resources stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of workers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future. Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or enhancing this vital resource base for the long term.
Systems Perspective A systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. The system is envisioned in its broadest sense, from the individual farm, to the local ecosystem, and to communities affected by the farming system both locally and globally. A systems approach gives the tools to explore the interconnections between farming and other aspects of the environment.
Interdisciplinary Efforts A systems approach also implies interdisciplinary efforts in research and education. This requires not only the input of researchers from various disciplines, but also farmers, farmworkers, consumers, policymakers and others.
NON-SUSTAINABLESUSTAINABLE transition PROCESS Meet Future Needs Degradation Erosion of Values The Trend
A Process Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a process. Reaching toward the goal of sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the system, including farmers, workers, policymakers, researchers, retailers, and consumers.
Resource Degradation Natural resource degradation from non- sustainable farming and forestry practices. Water is the principal resource that has helped agriculture and society to prosper, and it has been a major limiting factor when mismanaged. –drought-tolerant crop species, using reduced- volume irrigation systems, managing crops to reduce water loss, or don’t plant anything!
Energy Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on non- renewable energy sources, especially petroleum. The continued use of these non-renewable energy sources cannot be sustained indefinitely. In sustainable agricultural systems, there is reduced reliance on non-renewable energy sources and a substitution of renewable sources to the extent that is economically feasible e.g. biofuel
Water Quality The most important issues related to water quality involve salinization and contamination of ground and surface waters by pesticides, nitrates and selenium. Erosion and sedimentation. Waste water treatment. Desertification
Air Quality Many agricultural activities affect air quality. These include smoke from agricultural burning; dust from tillage, traffic and harvest; pesticide drift from spraying; and nitrous oxide emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Options to improve air quality include incorporating crop residue into the soil, using appropriate levels of tillage, and planting wind breaks, cover crops or strips of native perennial grasses to reduce dust.
Soil Quality Soil erosion continues to be a serious threat to our continued ability to produce adequate food. –Property development –Hillside clearing Numerous practices have been developed to keep soil in place, which include reducing or eliminating tillage, managing irrigation to reduce runoff, and keeping the soil covered with plants or mulch. Enhancement of soil quality.
Analysis of Sustainability Level of analysis Typical characteristics of sustainability (cumulative) Typical determinants of sustainability Field/production unit Productive crops & animals; Conservation of soil & water; low levels of crop pests & animal diseases Soil & water management; biological control of pests; use of organic manure; fertilizers; crop varieties & animal breeds Farm Awareness by farmers; economic & social needs satisfied; viable production systems Access to knowledge, external inputs and markets Country Public awareness; sound development of agro-ecological potential; conservation of resources Policies for agricultural development; population pressure; agricultural education, research & extension Region/continent/world Quality of the natural environment; human welfare & equity mechanisms; international agricultural research & development Control of pollution; terms of trade; distribution
Proposition A sustainable system or process must be based on resources that will not be exhausted over a reasonable period (sometimes expressed as the 'long term') A sustainable system or process must not generate unacceptable pollution externally or internally
Sustainable Farming Essentially one has to treat one’s farmland as a living system embedded in a broader ecosystem and understanding how to manage all farm practices on the basis of this holistic perception of sustainability
Sustainable Farming Its characteristics include: The farmer understands the land as a living system in which she/he acts to support a dynamic balance among the plants, animals, insects, soil, and water. Labor and knowledge are the intensive inputs. Animal and plant production is integrated and synergistic. Farm plant and animal residues and by-products are recycled, on the farm whenever possible. Farming maintains biodiversity and soil health through polyculture, crop rotation, cover crops, and appropriate application of compost and organic fertilizer.
Sustainable Farming Diversified cropping, windbreaks, hedgerows, and vegetation at field margins contribute to improved and varied wildlife habitat, including encouragement of beneficial predator insects. Pests and weeds are controlled through the whole pattern of farming, with little or no application of chemical pesticides or herbicides. Similarly, animal health is maintained through avoiding large concentrations and with minimal use of antibiotics. Energy consumption is much lower at all stages of the production cycle and uses renewable sources wherever possible. Farm equipment is relatively lightweight with low energy demand and impact on soils.
Essential Attributes for Future Agricultural Systems They should be highly productive, of safe, high quality products (within identified constraints) They should be physically sustainable, i.e. use physical resources at rates or in ways which allow adequate long term development They should be biologically sustainable (i.e. the biological organisms and processes on which they depend must be sustainable in the long term) - this could encompass the avoidance of internal pollution such as the build up of heavy metals They should satisfy agreed standards for human and animal welfare They should not give rise to unacceptable pollution, by products or effects, including visual ones They must be profitable (since they would not be practiced if they were not) - this also assumes that the products are wanted (otherwise there will be no demand and the business will collapse) They must be profitable (since they would not be practiced if they were not) - this also assumes that the products are wanted (otherwise there will be no demand and the business will collapse)
Source: Pretty, J. N. The Living Land (1998)
Integrated Crop Management (ICM) ICM is a 'whole farm approach' which is site specific and includes: The use of crop rotations Appropriate cultivation techniques Careful choice of seed varieties Minimum reliance on artificial inputs such as fertilisers, pesticides and fossil fuels Maintenance of the landscape The enhancement of wildlife habitats
Objectives of ICM The reduction or replacement of external farm inputs, such as inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and fuel, by means of farm produced substitutes and better management of inputs. Total replacement is not possible without significant loss of yields, but partial substitution of inputs can be achieved by the use of natural resources, the avoidance of waste and efficient management of external inputs. This would then lead to reduced production cost and less environmental degradation.
Waste Management The three "R"s apply here more than ever: reduce, reuse, recycle. It'll not only be more sustainable, but it's cheaper, too. Examine every bit of garbage and waste that your operation produces and ask "What else can I do with this?" If you can't do anything to do with it, try to think of ways someone else in the community can use it. Be creative.
Biological Sustainability No individual life form can be sustainable indefinitely, since all must die at some point in time. Preservation of individual life is only possible for limited periods (limited sustainability). Individual species, ecosystems and habitats can be sustained as they involve reproductive and other essential processes - without which they would cease to exist.
Non-living Resources Some resources are limited, other resources if not used now, will not remain. The most obvious example being sunlight. If the solar radiation received today is not trapped and utilized, it will not be available tomorrow. Nor will the rate that it is used today effect the amount that can be used tomorrow. The sun however is not an infinite resource and is slowly (albeit very slowly) running down. Non-living resources may largely remain intact, though they may change greatly in form (consider soil erosion, radiation loss and weathering of rock). Non-living resources may largely remain intact, though they may change greatly in form (consider soil erosion, radiation loss and weathering of rock).
Non-living Resources Resources such as fossil fuels are totally changed when used and cannot be recreated on any reasonable time scale. But they serve no purpose if left unused. The use of fossil fuels is entirely necessary to discover and exploit other resources for energy production. They make possible the construction of dams for hydropower and windmills for wind power. In other words, we are using the limited resource to find the means not to use, or at least limit its rate of use in the future. Gas and petrol are both derived from unsustainable resources.
Pause & Ponder The arrows in the flow chart above, outline the flows of money through the rural sector, can you suggest any free resources the farmer receives, and of what use are they? If a resource is limited, is there any benefit of leaving it totally unused? Newly manufactured fence posts, but are they from a sustainable wood supply?
Sustaining Resources Resources such as water and energy can be used up, but never destroyed. Matter can never be destroyed or indestructible. They may be changed in form, be recyclable or difficult to recapture. There is a difference between using a resource and using it up. For example, the countryside. Viewing the hills in a recreational park in Perlis is not using up the resource, but walking in the hills may (eventually) destroy them (eco-tourism)
Living Resources Living resources do not remain static. A dairy cow which is not milked may not provide any milk in the future and may eventually die and be unavailable for any purpose.
Living Resources All living things must eventually die: thus, a tree not used as a resource will eventually die and decay - liberating the same amount of CO 2 as if it had been burnt. Gaharu
Sustainable Harvesting The use of living resources may have to be considered over a relatively short period or be related to populations (plant and animal) capable of reproduction. This has given rise to the concept of sustainable harvesting, taking only such proportion of the population as can be continued over time, depending on reproductive rates in animals and seed numbers in plants
Economic Sustainability Economics is about the efficient use of resources, usually expressed in monetary terms. The concept of economic sustainability is subject, on all levels, to different inputs and outputs. The economic sustainability of a farm is subject to the viability of, and markets for, an enterprise or product. The economic sustainability of a nation is subject to the whole economy on local, national and international level. The economic sustainability of a nation is subject to the whole economy on local, national and international level.
Farming Life Enjoy your life. Farming is hard work, but the most successful farmers know when to call it a day and circumvent burn-out. Remember why you're farming and why, in particular, you're aiming for a sustainable operation. For most people, it's because they like knowing they're leaving land in better shape than they found it.
TUTORIAL Session 1/2009 Provide your understanding of what Biosystems Engineering is all about? What is a working definition of sustainability? Illustrate with a simple diagram of sustainability with respect to INPUT, OUTPUT and USE. Relate between population and sustainability.