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Arrays Continued. Passing by reference and passing by value.

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Presentation on theme: "Arrays Continued. Passing by reference and passing by value."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arrays Continued

2 Passing by reference and passing by value

3 Recap – Passing fundamental variables  The value of the actual parameter is copied into the formal parameter.  This type of parameter passing is called ‘pass by value’.

4 public class PassByValueExample { public static void main(String args[]) { // Setup Variable int actualParameter; // Assign value to variable actualParameter =5; System.out.println("Value of actualParameter is "+actualParameter); // Point 1 // Call method with variable doubleIt(actualParameter); // Point 4 // Examine contents of variable to see if changed System.out.println("actualParameter after doubleIt = "+actualParameter); } // End entryPoint public static void doubleIt(int formalParameter) { // Point 2 // Copy of parameter placed in variable formalParameter // Alter value of variable formalParameter = formalParameter * 2; // Point 3 // Output current value of variable System.out.println("Value of formalParameter is "+formalParameter); } // End of double } // End passByValueExample

5 Recap: Passing Objects as parameters  We have seen objects being passed as parameters, however given what we now know, what is actually happening?  Answer: The contents of an object variable (the address) is copied into a formal parameter. The method can now use the address to get access to the object.  This type of parameter passing is called ‘pass by reference’

6 class ExampleClass { private String valueString="default"; public void changeString(String receivedValue) { valueString = receivedValue; } // End changeString public String getValueString() { return valueString; } // End getValueString } // End ExampleClass

7 public class PassByReferenceExample { public static void main(String args[]) { ExampleClass exampleObject; // Point 1 // Setup the variable exampleObject to hold an address // Create an object and put its address in exampleObject exampleObject = new ExampleClass(); // Point 2 // Access the object System.out.println("Contents of ValueString"); System.out.println(exampleObject.getValueString()); // Call the method changeObject with the address of exampleObject changeObject(exampleObject); // Point 5 // Check to see if the contents of exampleObject have changed System.out.println("Contents of valueString"); System.out.println(exampleObject.getValueString()); } // End entryPoint public static void changeObject(ExampleClass receivedObject) { // Point 3 // Copy the reference to an object into the variable receivedObject // Change one of the variables in the object receivedObject.changeString("hello"); // Point 4 // Finish the method } // End changeObject } // End PassByReferenceExample

8 Passing arrays  Arrays are actually objects.  Therefore if an array is passed as a parameter what is passed is not a copy of the array but the address of the array.

9 Example public class ArrayPassingTest { public static void main(String args[]) { int results[] ={5,3,7}; System.out.println("Values before change"); printArray(results); changeArray(results); System.out.println("Values after change"); printArray(results); } // End entryPoint public static void printArray(int arrayValues[]) { for(int counter=0;counter { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/14/4383833/slides/slide_9.jpg", "name": "Example public class ArrayPassingTest { public static void main(String args[]) { int results[] ={5,3,7}; System.out.println( Values before change ); printArray(results); changeArray(results); System.out.println( Values after change ); printArray(results); } // End entryPoint public static void printArray(int arrayValues[]) { for(int counter=0;counter

10 Two Dimensional Arrays  A one-dimensional array stores a simple index of values  A two-dimensional array can be thought of as a table of values, with an index of rows and an index of columns.  A two-dimensional array element is referenced using two index values

11 Two Dimensional Arrays  In Java we represent tables as two- dimensional arrays.  There is actually no explicit data structure called “two-dimensional array” in Java. We only have one-dimensional arrays in Java. However, we can have an array of arrays, and this is how a two-dimensional array is implemented in Java.

12 Two Dimensional Arrays  A two-dimensional array element can therefore be though of as a cell in a table.  To be precise, a two- dimensional array in Java is an array of arrays. 12 24 36 48 01 0 1 2 3

13 Example public class TwoDimArrayEg { public static void main(String args[]) { int twoDTable[][]; twoDTable = new int[4][2]; for (int i = 0;i < 4; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 2; j++) { twoDTable[i][j] = (i + 1) * (j + 1);//cell }//inner for }//outer for for (int i = 0;i < 4; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 2; j++) { System.out.print(twoDTable[i][j]+" "); }//inner for System.out.println(); }//outer for }//end main }//end class TwoDimArrayEg

14 Collections Overview  A collection is a data structure (an object) that can hold references to other objects, usually of the same type.  We have already looked at arrays (one example of a collection)

15 Class Arrays  java.util.Arrays  Class arrays provide high level methods, such as sort for sorting an array, equals for comparing an array and fill for placing values into an array.

16 public class UsingArrays { private int intArray[] = {1,2,3,4,5,6}; private double doubleArray[] = {8.4, 9.3, 0.2, 7.9, 3.4}; public UsingArrays() { filledIntArray = new int [10]; intArrayCopy = new int [intArray.length]; Arrays.fill (filledIntArray, 7); Arrays.sort (doubleArray); }

17 Arrays vs Vectors  Grocery shopping list. To store items in the shopping list, you would use a Vector object. You may be wondering: – Why should I use a Vector and not an Array for my shopping list ?  Since you do not know how many items are going to be in the shopping list (maybe the user needs milk and bananas today, but tomorrow needs coffee, juice, and sugar) then you will want to use the dynamic Vector object.  Vectors, unlike Arrays, can grow and shrink during their lifecycle.

18 Vectors  "Arrays" of variable sizes are provided by the Vector class  import java.util.Vector; // load Vector package  To create a vector, use three steps: 1.Declare a new vector object and assign it to the vector variable. v = new Vector(); // create an empty vector object 2. You may also add a number to specify the (initial) capacity of the object e.g., v = new Vector(5); // create a vector object with initial capacity 5 e.g., v = new Vector(5); // create a vector object with initial capacity 5 3. Store things in the vector with the addElement method. v.addElement(new Integer(1)); // add first vector element

19 Accessing, Changing, and Removing Elements  The size method returns the current number of elements in the vector. –v.size(); To remove elements from a vector  v.removeElementAt(0); To Add elements to the end of a Vector  v.add(s); // adds s to the end of the Vector v

20 Vector Methods There are many useful methods in the Vector class and its parent classes. v is a Vector, i is an int index, o is an Object. v.add(o)adds Object o to Vector v v.add(i, o)Inserts Object o at index i, shifting elements up as necessary. v.clear()removes all elements from Vector v v.contains(o)Returns true if Vector v contains Object o v.firstElement(i)Returns the first element. v.get(i)Returns the object at int index i. v.lastElement(i)Returns the last element. v.remove(i) Removes the element at position i, and shifts all following elements down. v.set(i,o)Sets the element at index i to o. v.size()Returns the number of elements in Vector v.

21 Adding to the Vector import java.util.Vector; public class MainClass { public static void main(String args[]) { Vector v = new Vector(5); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { v.insertElementAt(i,0); } System.out.println(v); } }

22 Removing elements import java.util.Vector; public class MainClass { public static void main(String args[]) { Vector v = new Vector(5); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { v.add(0,i); } System.out.println(v.capacity()); System.out.println(v); v.remove(1); v.removeElementAt(2); System.out.println(v); System.out.println(v.capacity()); } } import java.util.Vector; public class MainClass { public static void main(String args[]) { Vector v = new Vector(5); for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { v.add(0,i); } System.out.println(v.capacity()); System.out.println(v); v.remove(1); v.removeElementAt(2); System.out.println(v); System.out.println(v.capacity()); } }


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