Sergei Eisenstein 5 Types of Montage 1.Metric 2.Rhythmic 3.Tonal 4.Overtonal 5.Intellectual
METRIC What Eisenstein Says: The fundamental criterion for this construction is the absolute lengths of the pieces. The pieces are joined together according to their lengths, in a formula-scheme corresponding to a measure of music. Realization is in the repetition of these “Measures.” Tension is obtained by the effect of mechanical acceleration by shortening the pieces while preserving the original proportions of the formula. -Eisenstein, Film Form Page 75
What’s This Mean The Editing is based on a specific number of frames. The cuts made are determined by the pre-determined number of frames and not on the content. The Emotions we feel come from the timing in the actual cuts.
Rhythmic Montage Here, in determining the lengths of the pieces, the content within the frame is a factor in possessing equal rights to consideration… …the actual length does not coincide with the mathematically determined length of the piece according to a metric formula. Here its practical length derives from the specifics of the piece, and from its planned length according to the structure of the sequence. -Eisenstein, Page 73-74 Film Form
What’s this mean Cutting based on rhythm and time, but also using the visual composition of the shots to determine edits.
Tonal Montage In tonal montage, movement is perceived in a wider sense. The concept of movement embraces all affects of the montage piece. Here Montage is based on the characteristic emotional sound of the piece-of its dominant. The general tone of the piece. -Eisenstein, Page 75, Film Form
What’s this mean Montage created from the emotional meaning of the shots.
Overtonal Montage In my opinion, overtonal montage (as described in the preceding essay) is organically the furthest development along the line of tonal montage. As I have indicated, it is distinguishable from tonal montage by the collective calculation of all the piece’s appeals. This characteristic steps up the impression from a melodically emotional coloring to a directly physiological perception. This, too, represents a level related to the preceding levels. These four categories are Methods of Montage. They become montage constructions proper when they enter into relations of conflict with each other-as in the examples cited. -Eisenstein, Page 78, Film Form
What’s this mean The accumulation of the emotional meaning of the shots
Intellectual Montage Intellectual Montage is montage not of generally physiological overtonal sounds, but of sounds and overtones of an intellectual sort: i.e.; conflict- juxtaposition of accompanying intellectual affects… The intellectual cinema will be that which resolves the conflict-juxtaposition of the physiological and intellectual overtones. -Eisenstein, Page 82, Film Form
What’s this mean Shots juxtaposition which elicit an intellectual meaning
Pudovkin’s Approach to Montage “If the editing be merely an uncontrolled combination of the various pieces, the spectator will understand nothing from it; but if it be coordinated according to a definitely selected course of events or conceptual line, either agitated or calm, it will either excite or soothe the spectator.” -V.I. Pudovkin Pudovkin’s approach to montage differed drastically from Eisensteins in that he believed in building the story as if each shot is a building block. Each shot built on character and story and when all the blocks came together it would represent a strong film. Pudovkin’s theory was that images work in terms of “Linkage” and “Unification” and he referred to this idea as “Constructive Editing”.
What about today’s Montage “Well, in the U.S., Canada, and England, montage refers to a impressionistic sequence of images usually linked by dissolves, super impositions or wipes and are used to convey a passage of time, change of place or any other scene of transition.” -Karel Reisz, Technique of Film Editing
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