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Evidence Base Camp: Day 2 Practical Group Sessions Patricia Hughes – National Police Library Julia Wire – Research Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence Base Camp: Day 2 Practical Group Sessions Patricia Hughes – National Police Library Julia Wire – Research Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence Base Camp: Day 2 Practical Group Sessions Patricia Hughes – National Police Library Julia Wire – Research Unit

2 Research question What interventions have been shown to be effective in tackling barriers to career progression experienced by under- represented groups?

3 Session Outline Practical session Walk through of an example search Develop search terms for our question area Look at each ‘tier’ of our search in turn Run search of combined terms

4 Recap

5 The process (in a nutshell) 1.Draft search terms/run searches 2.Draft sift criteria 3.Sift received abstracts 4.Request full papers 5.Read and ‘grade’ papers 6.Write it up (‘synthesis’)

6 TermsResults Anywhere in the article “Domestic violence”597,000 “Domestic abuse”32,500 Title only “Domestic violence"23,700 “Domestic abuse”1,220 Published since 2000 (title only) “Domestic violence"13,200 “Domestic abuse”822 Adding ‘randomised controlled trial’ “Domestic violence"0 0 Adding ‘experiment’ “Domestic violence"32 “Domestic abuse”0 Adding ‘systematic review’ “Domestic violence"7 “Domestic abuse”0 Search terms are hugely important Today’s session will really focus on our search terms and their impacts. Librarians and Researchers to help run live pilot searches Group work to build our search terms

7 Boolean is a powerful tool and can be used to create quite complex searches. The standard Boolean operators are: AND OR NOT (or AND NOT) (advanced users only!) Boolean is most effective when used in combination with: PARENTHESES(round brackets) TRUNCATION e.g. politic* WILDCARDS e.g. randomi?e DOUBLE QUOTESfor specific phrases The Basics Boolean operators

8 Practical example of searching - What works in preventing residential burglary?

9 Creating a search string example of domestic violence

10 String should be based around the research question: What works in the policing of public order? How can we reduce recidivism amongst sexual offenders? Each key aspect identified will then make up one Tier of the search. The tiers will then be combined to create the complete search string. Creating a Search String

11 There are often three tiers, but there can be as many or as few as the search requires. The standard way to create tiers is create lists of synonyms within a table, eg. Tiers Tier 1 Frozen Dessert Tier 2 Wafer Tier 3 Syrup Ice cream Froyo Sorbet Grannita Wafer Waffle Golden syrup Maple syrup Chocolate sauce Strawberry sauce

12 Domestic violence example Tier 1. Domestic violence / Domestic abuse This is the main area of the search. Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse? Tier 2. Risk factors/ predictive factors These terms interact with the main subject of the search. Tier 3. Effectiveness / What works We want to capture evidence that is evaluative, rather than commentary. Tier 4. Policing (?) We may want to limit our search to factors for the police and policing, or we might decide we are interested in factors identified from healthcare or other potential partners.

13 Building our search string using synonyms Tier 1: Domestic violence/ abuse Tier 2: Risk/ predictive factors Tier 3: Effectiveness Tier 4: Policing Domestic violence Domestic abuse Intimate partner violence Intimate-partner violence (hyphenated) Intimate partner femicide Spousal assault Partner violence Battered women Wife assault Repeated violence Couple violence Domestic murder Risk assessment Risk management Risk appraisal Risk of homicide Prediction of homicide Nursing assessment Lethality risk assessment Predicting/ predictive Dangerousness assessment Evaluation Assessment “What works” Impact Randomised controlled trial Trial Experiment Systematic review Police Policing Law Enforcement Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse?

14 Turning synonyms into search terms ((Domestic OR Physical OR Emotional OR Familial OR Marital OR Spousal) AND (Abus* OR violen* OR control* OR behav*)) OR Coerc* OR “domestic homicide” OR “marital rape” OR “intimate partner violence” OR “repeat victim*” OR “women’s refuge” C. 197,000 results 11:30 - break

15 Research question What interventions have been shown to be effective in tackling barriers to career progression experienced by under-represented groups? under-represented groups career progression barriers interventions effective/What Works

16 Factors in our question Tier 1 – under-represented groups Tier 2 – career progression Tier 3 – barriers Tier 4 – interventions Tier 5 – effective/What Works

17 Tier 1 Synonyms – under-represented groups BME Black Minority Ethnic Inequality Exclusion Multiculturalism Misrepresented Insufficiently represented Inadequately represented Disadvantaged groups Protect characteristic groups Hard to reach Diversity Hard to hear Marginalised Social exclusion LGBT Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Disempowered Transvestite

18 Tier 1 Synonyms – under-represented groups Tokenism Women Gender Sex Disability Impairment Race GRT Gypsy Roman Travellers Age Deprivation Religion Faith Nationality Belief Maternity Pregnancy Flexible working Marriage Civil partnership Majority Dominance Over represented Class

19 Lunch Afternoon session starts at 13:15 12:30

20 Tier 1 - Version 1 - ProQuest (BME OR Black OR minority OR ethnic OR inequality OR exclusion OR multiculturalism OR misrepresented OR “insufficiently represented” OR “inadequately represented” OR “disadvantaged groups” OR “protect characteristic groups “ OR “hard to reach” OR diversity OR “hard to hear” OR marginalised OR “social exclusion” OR LGBT or lesbian OR gay OR bisexual OR transgender OR disempowered OR transvestite OR tokenism OR women OR gender OR sex OR disability OR impairment OR race OR GRT OR “gypsy roman travellers” OR age OR deprivation OR religion OR faith OR nationality OR belief OR maternity OR pregnancy OR “flexible working” OR marriage OR “civil partnership” OR majority OR dominance OR “over represented” OR class OR Asian OR civilian OR “support staff”) 2.7 million

21 Tier 1 - Version 2 - ProQuest BME OR Black OR minorit* OR ethnic* OR inequalit* OR equalit* OR exclusion OR exclude* OR cultur* OR (represented AND (over OR under OR mis* OR inadequat* OR insufficient*)) OR “disadvantaged group*” OR “protected characteristic group*” OR “hard to reach” OR diversity OR “hard to hear” OR marginali?e* OR “social exclusion” OR LGBT or lesbian* OR gay* OR bisexual* OR transgender OR “sexual orientation” OR disempower* OR transvestite* OR tokenism OR women OR gender OR female* OR sex OR disability OR impairment OR race OR GRT OR “gypsy romany traveller*” OR gyps* OR traveller* OR age OR depriv* OR religion* OR faith* OR national* OR belief* OR maternity OR pregnancy OR “flexible working” OR “civil partnership” OR dominan* OR class OR Asian* OR civilian* OR “support staff” 3.8 million

22 Tier 1 - Version 3 - ProQuest BME OR Black OR minorit* OR ethnic* OR inequalit* OR equalit* OR exclusion OR exclude* OR cultur* OR (represented AND (over OR under OR inadequat* OR insufficient*)) OR “disadvantaged group*” OR “protected characteristic group*” OR diversity OR marginali?e* OR “social exclusion” OR LGBT or lesbian* OR gay* OR bisexual* OR transgender OR “sexual orientation” OR disempower* OR transvestite* OR tokenism OR women OR gender OR female* OR disability OR impairment OR race OR GRT OR “gypsy romany traveller*” OR gyps* OR traveller* OR age OR depriv* OR religion* OR faith* OR national* OR belief* OR maternity OR pregnancy OR “flexible working” OR “civil partnership” OR dominan* OR class OR Asian* OR civilian* OR “support staff” 3.7 MILLION

23 Tier 1 - Version 3 - ProQuest BME OR Black OR minorit* OR ethnic* OR inequalit* OR equalit* OR exclusion OR exclude* OR (represented AND (over OR under OR inadequat* OR insufficient*)) OR “disadvantaged group*” OR “protected characteristic group*” OR diversity OR marginali?e* OR “social exclusion” OR LGBT or lesbian* OR gay* OR bisexual* OR transgender OR “sexual orientation” OR disempower* OR transvestite* OR tokenism OR women OR gender OR female* OR disability OR impairment OR race OR GRT OR “gypsy romany traveller*” OR gyps* OR traveller* OR age OR depriv* OR religion* OR faith* OR national* OR belief* OR maternity OR pregnancy OR “flexible working” OR “civil partnership” OR dominan* OR class OR Asian* OR civilian* OR “support staff” 3.3 MILLION

24 Tier 2 Synonyms – career progression Career“reward and benefit” Pathway* Work* Organisation Employment Vocation Job* “human resources” Role* Pay Remuneration salary Progression mobility Advanc*“personal development” Promot* “professional development” Development“lateral development” Opportunit* Senior*Retention Leadership*Upwards Success Recruitment Selection Specialisation Rank

25 Tier 2 - Version 1 - ProQuest (Career* OR pathway* OR work* OR organi?ation* OR employment OR vocation* OR job* OR “human resources” OR role* OR pay OR remuneration OR salary or “Reward* and benefit*”) AND (Progress* OR advanc* OR promot* OR develop* OR ((personal OR professional OR lateral) AND development) OR opportunit* OR senior* OR leader* OR success* OR recruit* OR selection OR speciali* OR rank OR mobility OR retention OR upwards) 1.2 MILLION

26 Tier 2 - Version 2 - ProQuest (Career* OR pathway* OR work* OR organi?ation* OR employment OR vocation* OR job* OR “human resources” OR pay OR remuneration OR salary or “Reward* and benefit*”) AND (Progress* OR advanc* OR promot* OR develop* OR ((personal OR professional OR lateral) AND development) OR opportunit* OR senior* OR leader* OR success* OR recruit* OR selection OR speciali* OR rank OR mobility OR retention OR upwards)

27 Tier 2 - Version 3 - ProQuest (Career* OR employment OR vocation* OR job* OR pay OR remuneration OR salary) AND (Progress* OR advanc* OR promot* OR ((personal OR professional OR lateral) AND development) OR opportunit* OR senior* OR leader* OR success* OR recruit* OR selection OR speciali* OR rank OR mobility OR retention OR upwards OR ladder OR “continuous improvement”) Approximate number of hits

28 Tier 2 - Version 4 - ProQuest (Career* OR employment OR vocation* OR job* OR remuneration OR salary) AND (Progress* OR advanc* OR promot* OR ((personal OR professional OR lateral) AND development) OR opportunit* OR senior* OR leader* OR success* OR selection OR speciali* OR rank OR mobility OR retention OR upwards OR ladder OR “continuous improvement”)

29 Tier 3 Synonyms – barriers barriers

30 Tier 3 - Version 1 - ProQuest Obstacle* OR barrier* OR hurdle* OR wall* OR block* OR “glass ceiling” OR obstruction* OR hindrance*

31 Tier 4 Synonyms – interventions Tactic Intervention Strategy Initiative Procedure Approach

32 Tier 5 Synonyms – What Works Systematic Review Literature review Trial RCT Experiment Evaluat Best Practice Good practice Effective Assess What works Impact Success (Tier 6 – POLICING...)?

33 Initial merging of terms Version _ of Tier 1 + Version _ of Tier 2 = c. records + Tier 3 = c. records + Tier 4 = c. Records + Tier 5 = c.1441 Issues/ questions/ queries What surprised you, etc.

34 This exercise 1.Shows the value of systematically searching 2.Shows the impact of having multiple tiers in our searches 3.Gives us an idea of the number of articles that might be relevant to our research question… At the next evidence base camp we will sift through the abstracts based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria to identify the full papers to request for the review.

35 Usual Synonyms intervention* OR tactic* OR strateg* OR initiative* OR procedure* or approach* “systematic review” OR “literature review*” OR trial* OR “RCT” OR experiment* OR evaluat* OR “best practice*” OR “good practice*” OR effective* OR assess* OR “What Works” OR impact* OR success* police OR policing OR "law enforcement"

36 Back-up Synonyms ethnic* OR race OR racial OR minorit* OR gender OR women OR black OR diversity OR equality OR "under-represented" progress* OR selection OR lead* OR promot* OR advance*

37 Back-up Search (ti(ethnic* OR race OR racial OR minorit* OR gender OR women OR black OR diversity OR equality OR "under-represented") OR ab(ethnic* OR race OR racial OR minorit* OR gender OR women OR black OR diversity OR equality OR "under- represented")) AND (ti((progress* OR selection OR lead* OR promot* OR advance*) AND (career* OR job* OR work*)) OR ab((progress* OR selection OR lead* OR promot* OR advance*) AND (career* OR job* OR work*))) AND (ti(intervention* OR tactic* OR strateg* OR initiative* OR procedure* or approach*) OR ab(intervention* OR tactic* OR strateg* OR initiative* OR procedure* or approach*)) AND (ti(“systematic review” OR “literature review*” OR trial* OR “RCT” OR experiment* OR evaluat* OR “best practice*” OR “good practice*" OR effective* OR assess* OR "What Works" OR impact* OR success*) OR ab(“systematic review” OR “literature review*” OR trial* OR “RCT” OR experiment* OR evaluat* OR “best practice*” OR “good practice*" OR effective* OR assess* OR "What Works" OR impact* OR success*)) AND (ti(barrier* OR obstacle*) OR ab(barrier* OR obstacle*)) = 751 results


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