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A POWERPOINT Tony Mo, Nicole Ma, Salvador Ar, Rogelio Ac, Grant.

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Presentation on theme: "A POWERPOINT Tony Mo, Nicole Ma, Salvador Ar, Rogelio Ac, Grant."— Presentation transcript:

1 A POWERPOINT Tony Mo, Nicole Ma, Salvador Ar, Rogelio Ac, Grant

2 Relevancy of Psych Research  Charney and Weismann (1988) found that Major Depressive Disorder is relatively common, inevitably affecting around 15 percent of people.  According to the Department of Health (1990), depression accounted for about one-fourth of all psychiatric hospital admissions in the UK.  Depression is two to three times more common in women than men; it occurs frequently among members of lower socio- economic groups; and most frequently among youth adults.  Levav (1997) found the prevalence rate to be above average in Jewish males and females. (No prevalence between the two)

3 Describe symptoms  Symptoms include  Delusions  Poor concentration  Withdrawal from social situations and activities  Reduced sex drive  Thoughts of death or suicide  Insomnia  Fatigue  Headaches  Decreased appetite  Agitation  Lethargy

4 Describe prevalence of MDD in Anxiety, and Affective disorders  MDD contributions to Anxiety Disorders  Irrational and illogical thinkers, begin self-loathing, delve into self-defeating conclusions that usual end in anger, anxiety or depression.  MDD contributions to Affective Disorders  Effects the mood of individuals suffering from depression, which in turn affect social encounters of the sociable kind. IE, friends, family, etc. Again, this can lead to self-loathing, fatigue, and insomnia

5 Discuss the interaction of Biological factors  Nurnberger, and Gershon—via twin studies, found the concordance rate for MDD to be higher for MZ twins than DZ twins.  Duenwald (2003) suggested that the 5-HTT gene may be associated with a higher risk of depression. (Playing a role in the serotonin pathways which scientists think are involved in controlling mood and anxiety.)  Seretonin Hypothesis—Burns (2003) hadn’t seen liable findings to say that depression results from low serotonin metabolism due the inability to measure the levels inside a living person.  Corisol Hypothesis—patients suffering from depression show high levels of cortisol (major hormone of stress system).

6 Discuss the interaction of Cognitive Factors  Ellis (1962) introduced the Cognitive Style theory, suggesting that stress was induced by illogical, and irrational thinking. Due to it, people falsely deduce extreme conclusions leading to anger, anxiety, or depression. (I don’t have the highest grade, ergo, I suck)  Beck Cognitive Distortion theory, (1966) founded by negative cognitive triad characterized by over generalized, illogical, and dichotomous thinking. Depending on the view of the patient, having a pessimistic outlook, they may suffer from depression.  Black Burn reported that people suffering from depression exhibited numerous disturbances in thought processes.  Alloy et al (1999) proved Ellis’ theory via splitting up a pess, and opp, group of people, and tracked them for six years. In the opp portion, only one percent exhibited depression, much less than the pess group.

7 Discuss the interaction of Socio-cultural factors  Brown and Harris (1978) found the social origins in woman; 29 out of 32 who became depressed experienced a sever life event, but 78% of those who did experience a sever life event, didn’t become depressed. (Majority didn’t stay depressed)  Brown suggested a Vulnerability Model based on a number of factors that may cause depression  Diathesis-stress Model— interactionist approach to explaining psychological disorders: claims that depression is caused via hereditary predisposition with participating events in the environment

8 Explain cultural and gender variation in disorders  The World Health Organization (1983)- looked at cultures linked to depression, and found common symptoms in four specific countries: Iran, Japan, Canada, and Switzerland: loss of enjoyment, anxiety, tension, fatigue, loss of interest, inability to concentrate, and ideas of insufficiency, inadequacy, and worthlessness.  Marsella (1979) found effective symptoms, (sadness, loniliness, and isolation) to be typical in Individualist countries, and symptomatic symptoms, (headaches) to be common in Collectivist countries.  Williams and Hargreaves found that woman are two to three times more likely to become clinically depressed than men.

9 Examine biomed, individual, and group treatment approaches Pt 1  Psychopharmacology involves the use of meds: the most common form of biomedical therapy. It is used for emotional, behavioral and mental disorders and benefits many patients.  Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) is used only if all other treatment fails. Modern methods employ low "doses" of electric shock to the brain along with sedatives and relaxants to minimize the unpleasantness to patients. Affects of improvement last temporarily.

10 Examine biomed, individual, and group treatment approaches Pt 2  Methods used  Counseling and Psychotherapy  Electroconvulsive Therapy  Vagus Nerve Stimulation  Mothers and Their Children (Bonding)


12 Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to MDD Pt 1  An eclectic approach incorporates principles from various theories. For example, in the case of a depressive patient who is suicidal, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may take too long to take effect, or the individual may not be in a state that would allow for discussions about his or her cognitive processes. Drug therapy may be used in order to lessen the symptomology of the disorder; then, once the individual is stabilized, CBT might be used. Also, as the individual becomes more self-reliant, group therapy may be recommended in order to help him or her develop strategies to avoid future relapse, as well as a support system.

13 Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to MDD Pt 2  Advantages of using an eclectic approach  Eclectic approaches have a broader theoretical base and may be more sophisticated than approaches using a single theory.  Eclectic approaches offer the clinician greater flexibility in treatment. Individual needs are better matched to treatments when more options are available.  There are more chances for finding efficacious treatments if two or more treatments are studied in combination.  The clinician using eclectic approaches is not biased toward one treatment and may have greater objectivity about selecting different treatments

14 Discuss the use of eclectic approaches to MDD Pt 2  Disadvantages  Sometimes clinicians use eclectic approaches in place of a clear theory. Eclectic approaches are not substitutes for having a clear orientation that is supplemented with other tested treatments.  Sometimes eclectic approaches are applied inconsistently. It takes knowledge and skill to deliver eclectic approaches effectively.  In general there are very few efficacy studies at this stage to support the approach, partly because it is difficult to judge the relative value of each treatment in an eclectic approach.  However it is important to remember that eclectic approaches may be too complex for one clinician. There is always a danger that clinicians might call themselves "eclectic" when they really have no clear direction for treatment.

15 Discuss the relation between etiology and therapeutic approach Pt 1  No one treatment works for everyone. Even if "causation" is established, the selected therapeutic approach should take into account a client's cultural values, a client's ability to tolerate drug treatments, a client's enthusiasm for group therapy, a client's willingness to address negative cognitive style, or a client's ability to start and follow through (self-efficacy) with the lifestyle changes necessary for dietary or exercise treatments.  It is often difficult or impossible to identity a specific "cause" of any mental disorder. Attempts to do, such as the biological approach, represent a singular, reductionist approach to depression. However depression is a complex disorder caused by a number of factors.

16 Discuss the relation between etiology and therapeutic approach Pt 2  It is still possible to treat "symptoms." even when causes are unknown. For example, antidepressants or cognitive therapy treat depressive symptoms. Many clinicians measure symptoms before and after treatment with assessment instruments such as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. Many consider a treatment to "work" if the symptoms are reduced, however not everyone agrees with this definition of "work." Therefore etiology is not always a priority in treating depression.  The desire to locate a single, scientific cause is part of the Western way of thinking. Others cultures, such as practitioners of TCM ( Traditional Chinese Medicine) do not look for a cause. Instead physical and mental illnesses are considered interrelated. TCM would advocate acupuncture, as well as dietary and lifestyle changes in addressing a qi imbalance.

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