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1 Cue the Video

2 Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Michael Matthews, Kim Michaud, Ricshawn Adkins Roane & Luis Sosa

3 The Development of SFBT In this section we will discuss: The Development of SFBT Brief History Important Theoretical Concepts Underlying Assumptions Stages in Treatment Timing Finding Solutions

4 History originated 1970’s Mental Research Institute (Palo Alto,CA) Cognitive/Behavioral Change of actions/thoughts Psychodynamic Efficient / results-oriented Systems Reciprocal relationships: client/others Social systems

5 Theoretical Concepts Einstein: A problem can’t be solved at level of its creation Little attention to human development & past pathologies Focus on positive change in small increments

6 Assumptions Troubling behavior client’s static frame of reference Clients are capable of change given increased hope & expectancy Client’s imagined positive frame clinician’s ideas/suggestions client’s hope for change goals Concrete goals & changed perceptions/behavior progress Small changes snowball positively

7 Early Contributors Steve de Shazer – Miracle question Clues “If you woke up and miraculously your complaint was gone, how would you know?” Task Suggestions Insoo Kim Berg O’Hanlon & Weiner-Davis – Stepping stones to goals behavior changes > understanding Talmon – Starts on the phone: Notice good that’s happening before we have first session

8 Timing Therapy relationships relatively brief – 6 to 20 sessions Scheduling is flexible – Breaks for clinicians to develop clues – Breaks for clients to implement Treatment lasts until goal is reached / complaints resolved

9 Treatment Stages Seven Treatment Stages which include: – ID solvable complaint unsuccessful interactions/ mishandling things – Establishing specific, observable, measurable, concrete goals which will change client’s VIEWING, DOING, OR ACCESSING RESOURCES client’s positive imaginings or exceptions – Strategic tasks evaluation of tasks Progress – Termination by client : goal accomplished

10 Finding Solutions View clients as experts with strengths/resources they need to change Focus on change in progress/expand on positive exceptions Provide rationale for tasks Encourage new behaviors, not just cessation of old Make solutions practical and specific

11 Treatment Using SFBT In this section we will discuss: SFBT Therapeutic Goals The Therapeutic Alliance Therapeutic Techniques

12 Jamie, Ricshawn, Ellington & Hathaway Minka-en, Tokyo, Japan 2010

13 Therapeutic Goals Establish climate conducive to change Shift from problem-talk to solution-talk Identify “exceptions” Tap inner resources

14 The Therapeutic Alliance Positive orientation Collaborative and consultative relationship Therapist-as-expert replaced by client-as-expert Therapist as facilitator of change

15 SFBT Therapeutic Techniques Clues Complaint Pattern Intervention Focus on strengths Formula First Session Task Homework Miracle Question Pretherapy Change Problem Externalization Scaling Questions Summary Feedback/Compliments Termination Videotalk Solution Talk Make Suggestions Termination

16 Section Review In this Section we discussed: SFBT Therapeutic Goals The Therapeutic Alliance Therapeutic Techniques

17 Application & Current Use of Solution Focused Theory Section Overview: Application to Diagnostic Groups Application to Multicultural Groups Application to Other Groups Current Use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy


19 What Type of Client is Best for SFBT? Is motivated to face their difficulties and change Has a history of good relationships Can be flexible and creative Has succeeded in finding solutions to past problems Has a strong support group

20 The Scope of SFBT Has expanded and is meant to help anyone who is in the midst of a crisis Focus is on helping clients realize that they are more than their symptoms and/or experiences The use of trances, stories, and solution talk are used to validate what others invalidate within themselves. (This invites the client to consider new opportunities.) Promote a client’s boundaries/the ability to maintain those boundaries Rituals provide consistency & facilitate transitions & can also promote connection with other people, memories and one’s history and culture.

21 Application to Diagnostic Groups Well suited to treatment of mood and anxiety disorders Concepts and Strategies associated with SFBT Attention to motivation Emphasis on small successes Efforts to find exceptions It is likely that a counselor will need to apply more than just SFBT

22 Application to Multicultural Groups SFBT respects and honors the unique cultural backgrounds – each client is seen as the expert on his or her own life SFBT Focuses on: HealthClient Dignity Collaboration ResourcesEmpowerment StrengthsSelf- Determination Flexible -- What’s most important to each client can be emphasized on a case by case basis Does not place great weight on the importance of cultural factors The key is client motivation

23 Application to Other Groups Useful for clients of all ages but may need modification for children Child Modification: The use of Integrated expressive play techniques

24 Current Use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy Growing in popularity because of its efficiency and effectiveness Well received because it advocates: Goal setting Measurement of progress Empowerment of clients Collaborative therapeutic alliance Use of intervention and homework tasks makes this easy to integrate with other theories—particularly those that focus on behavior change. (Cognitive behavioral, REBT, Adlerian and reality therapy)

25 Cue the Video

26 Evaluation of SFBT In this section we will discuss SFBT: Limitations Strengths Contributions

27 Limitations Too much focus on the presenting problem Client history is neglected Not usually appropriate as the primary or only treatment plan Lack of focus on insight Can be costly for the client

28 Strengths Effective and efficient Well received by clients Deals with immediate problems Challenges clients to think Encouraging and empowering Can be combined with other counseling approaches

29 Contributions Optimistic orientation Provides clinicians with powerful new interventions (The miracle question, emphasis on exceptions and possibilities, and its emphasis on small behavioral changes)

30 Section Review In this Section we discussed: Limitations Strengths Contributions

31 References Corey, M. S., and Corey, G. (2011, 2007). Becoming a helper (6 th ed., pp. 174-176). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. Corey, G. (2005). Postmodern Approaches. In L. Gebo, J. Martinez, M. Flemming, & S. Gesicki (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (7th ed., pp. 382-419). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. Gladding, S. T. (2009). Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession (6 th ed., pp. 242-244). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B., & Simek-Morgan, L. (2007). Theories of Counseling and psychotherapy: A Multicultural perspective (6 th ed., pp. 65-71 & 101-108). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Seligman, L. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies and skills (3 rd ed., pp. 366-369). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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