3All protists are eukaryotes. Chapter 19Protists19.1 Introduction to ProtistsProtistsAll protists are eukaryotes.Some reproduce asexually by mitosis while others exchange genetic material during meiosis.
4Chapter 19Protists19.1 Introduction to ProtistsClassifying ProtistsSome scientists classify protists by their methods of obtaining nutrition.Animal-like protistsPlantlike protistsFunguslike protists
5Chapter 19Protists19.1 Introduction to ProtistsAnimal-like ProtistsProtozoans are heterotrophs and usually ingest bacteria, algae, or other protozoans.
6Plantlike protists make their own food through photosynthesis. Chapter 19Protists19.1 Introduction to ProtistsPlantlike ProtistsPlantlike protists make their own food through photosynthesis.Algae
7Funguslike protists absorb their nutrients from other organisms. Chapter 19Protists19.1 Introduction to ProtistsFunguslike ProtistsFunguslike protists absorb their nutrients from other organisms.
9Biologists further classify protozoans by their method of movement. Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsCiliophoraBiologists further classify protozoans by their method of movement.Members of the phylum Ciliophora are animal-like protists that have numerous short, hairlike projections.There are over 7000 species of ciliates.
10A unicellular protozoan Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsParameciaMagnification unavailableA unicellular protozoanEnclosed by a layer of membrane called a pellicle.Paramecia
11Cilia on the paramecium are used for moving and feeding. Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsCiliaCilia on the paramecium are used for moving and feeding.Contractile VacuolesThe contractile vacuoles collect the excess water from the cytoplasm and expel it from the cell.
13Animal-like protists that use pseudopods for feeding and locomotion Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsSarcodinaAnimal-like protists that use pseudopods for feeding and locomotionThe most commonly studied sarcodines are found in the genus Amoeba.
14Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsChemical stimuli from smaller organisms can cause the amoeba to form pseudopods from their plasma membrane.
15Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsAmoebas are enveloped in an outer cell membrane and an inner thickened cytoplasm called ectoplasm.The cytoplasm contains a nucleus, food vacuoles, and occasionally a contractile vacuole.Waste products and undigested food particles are excreted by diffusion through the outer membranes into surrounding water.
16Amoebas reproduce by asexual reproduction. Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsAmoebas reproduce by asexual reproduction.During harsh environmental conditions, some amoebas become cysts that help them survive until environmental conditions improve and survival is more likely.
17All sporozoans are parasitic. Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsApicomplexaAnimal-like protists that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa also are known as sporozoans.All sporozoans are parasitic.
1819.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsThe life cycle of sporozoans has both sexual and asexual stages.
19Animal-like protozoans that use flagella for movement Chapter 19Protists19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like ProtistsZoomastiginaAnimal-like protozoans that use flagella for movementAt least three species of zooflagellates from the genus Trypanosoma cause infectious diseases in humans that often are fatal because of limited treatment options.Chagas disease, sometimes called American sleeping sicknessAfrican sleeping sickness
20Characteristics of Algae Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsCharacteristics of AlgaeContain photosynthetic pigmentsPrimary pigment is chlorophyllSecondary pigments allow them to absorb light energy in deep water
22The unicellular algae are members of the phylum Bacillariophyta. Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsMagnification unavailableDiatomsThe unicellular algae are members of the phylum Bacillariophyta.Diatoms are photosynthetic autotrophs.Diatoms
23Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsAsexual reproduction occurs when the two separated halves each create a new half that can fit inside the old one.When a diatom is about one-quarter of the original size, sexual reproduction is triggered and gametes are produced.
25Unicellular and have two flagella at right angles to one another Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsDinoflagellatesUnicellular and have two flagella at right angles to one anotherSome dinoflagellates are photosynthetic autotrophs, and other species are heterotrophs.The heterotrophic dinoflagellates can be carnivorous, parasitic, or mutualistic.
26Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsAlgal BloomsWhen food is plentiful and environmental conditions are favorable, dinoflagellates reproduce in great numbers.When the food supply diminishes, the dinoflagellates die in large numbers.As the dead algae decompose, the oxygen supply in the water is depleted, suffocating fish and other marine organisms.
27Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsRed TidesSome dinoflagellates have red photosynthetic pigments, and when they bloom, the ocean is tinged red.Some species of dinoflagellates produce a potentially lethal nerve toxin.
28Euglenoids contain chloroplasts and photosynthesize. Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsEuglenoidsEuglenoids contain chloroplasts and photosynthesize.Euglenoids also can be heterotrophs.
29Yellow-green algae and golden-brown algae Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsChrysophytesYellow-green algae and golden-brown algaeYellow and brown carotenoids that give them their golden brown colorGolden-brown algae
30Brown color is from a secondary carotenoid pigment called fucoxanthin. Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsBrown AlgaeBrown color is from a secondary carotenoid pigment called fucoxanthin.Most of the 1500 species of brown algae live along rocky coasts in cool areas of the world.
31Most species of green algae are found in freshwater. Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsGreen AlgaeLike plants, green algae contain chlorophyll as a primary photosynthetic pigment.Like plants, green algae have cell walls, and both groups store their food as carbohydrates.Most species of green algae are found in freshwater.
32Growth Patterns Exhibited by Green Algae Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsGrowth Patterns Exhibited by Green AlgaeDesmids are characterized by their symmetrically divided cells.Spirogyra is a multicellular species characterized by its long, thin filaments.Volvox is an example of an alga that has a colonial growth pattern.
35and one that reproduces asexually— to complete a life cycle. Chapter 19Protists19.3 Algae—Plantlike ProtistsLife Cycle of AlgaeAlternation of generations is a life cycle of algae that takes two generations—one that reproduces sexuallyand one that reproduces asexually—to complete a life cycle.
36Slime molds use spores to reproduce. Chapter 19Protists19.4 Funguslike ProtistsSlime MoldsSlime molds use spores to reproduce.Feed on decaying organic matter and absorb nutrients through their cell walls.The cell walls of these protists contain cellulose or celluloselike compounds.
37Acellular slime molds are found in the phylum Myxomycota. Chapter 19Protists19.4 Funguslike ProtistsAcellular Slime MoldsAcellular slime molds are found in the phylum Myxomycota.
38Cellular slime molds are found in the phylum Acrasiomycota. Chapter 19Protists19.4 Funguslike ProtistsCellular Slime MoldsCellular slime molds are found in the phylum Acrasiomycota.Reproduce both sexually and asexually
39Water Molds and Downy Mildew Chapter 19Protists19.4 Funguslike ProtistsWater Molds and Downy MildewThere are more than 500 species of watermolds and downymildews in thephylum Oomycota.Water molds differ from fungi in thecomposition of their cell walls and theyproduce flagellated reproductive cells.Water mold
40Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions ProtistsChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
41How are funguslike protists different from fungi? Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsHow are funguslike protists different fromfungi?perform photosynthesisingest bacteriamicroscopic in sizecontain centrioles
42Which type of protist carries out photosynthesis and has chloroplasts? Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich type of protist carries outphotosynthesis and has chloroplasts?bacteriaalgaemoldfungus
43Which is not a characteristic of protists? Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of protists?unicellularmulticellularmight have formed throughendosymbiosisprokaryotic
44What type of cells do protists have? Chapter 19Protists19.1 Formative QuestionsWhat type of cells do protists have?eukaryotic cellsprokaryotic cells
45How are protists classified? Chapter 19Protists19.1 Formative QuestionsHow are protists classified?by their internal cell structureby their methods of reproductionby the way they obtain nutritionby the type of cell membranes they have
46Why are protozoans classified as animal- like protists? Chapter 19Protists19.1 Formative QuestionsWhy are protozoans classified as animal-like protists?They absorb nutrients.They are heterotrophs.They carry out photosynthesis.They have either cilia or flagella.
47Which microscopic protozoan lives in the Chapter 19Protists19.1 Formative QuestionsWhich microscopic protozoan lives in theguts of termites and produces enzymesthat digest wood?cystosporidiusmicrosporidiumsporocytidiussporomicrobium
48What is the outermost layer of membrane in a paramecium? Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the outermost layer of membranein a paramecium?
50By what method do ciliates reproduce asexually? Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsBy what method do ciliates reproduceasexually?binary fissioncytokinesiscyst formationendoplasmic bridging
51What do amoebas use for feeding and locomotion? Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsWhat do amoebas use for feeding andlocomotion?ciliaectoplasmflagellapseudopods
52How do amoebas excrete waste products and undigested food particles? Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsHow do amoebas excrete waste productsand undigested food particles?by diffusionby exocytosisthrough an anal porethrough waste vacuoles
53How are the protists that cause malaria, Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsHow are the protists that cause malaria,Chagas’ disease, and African sleepingsickness transmitted to humans?by insectsby humid airby animal wastesby unsanitary water
54What is the insect host for the protist that causes Chagas’ disease? Chapter 19Protists19.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the insect host for the protist thatcauses Chagas’ disease?the tsetse flythe reduviid bugthe Anopheles mosquitothe Trypanosoma gnat
55Which is not a characteristic of algae? Chapter 19Protists19.3 Formative QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of algae?acellularautotrophicplantlikephotosynthetic
56Which algae are able to live and photosynthesize in the deepest water? Chapter 19Protists19.3 Formative QuestionsWhich algae are able to live andphotosynthesize in the deepest water?brown algaediatomsdinoflagellatesred algae
57Why are diatoms found closer to the surface of the water? Chapter 19Protists19.3 Formative QuestionsWhy are diatoms found closer to the surfaceof the water?They store their food as oil.They are photosynthetic autotrophs.Their secondary pigments are carotenoids.Their silica walls form two unequal halves.
58What observation leads scientists to issue Chapter 19Protists19.3 Formative QuestionsWhat observation leads scientists to issuea warning to stop shellfish harvesting?chrysophyte colonieskelp overpopulationred tideszooplankton blooms
59What organisms make up the base of the Chapter 19Protists19.3 Formative QuestionsWhat organisms make up the base of thefood web in aquatic environments?kelpblue-green algaemulticellular algaephytoplankton
60How are funguslike protists different from fungi? Chapter 19Protists19.4 Formative QuestionsHow are funguslike protists different fromfungi?They use spores to reproduce.Their cell walls contain cellulose.They feed on dead and decayingorganic matter.They absorb nutrients through theircell walls.
61What is a plasmodium? a flagellated diploid zygote Chapter 19Protists19.4 Formative QuestionsWhat is a plasmodium?a flagellated diploid zygotea mature colony of sporangiaa multinucleated mass of cytoplasman amoeboid cell produced from a spore
62Which part of the cellular slime mold life Chapter 19Protists19.4 Formative QuestionsWhich part of the cellular slime mold lifecycle is a response to scarcity of food?
63What type of protist caused the famine that Chapter 19Protists19.4 Formative QuestionsWhat type of protist caused the famine thatresulted in large emigration of people fromIreland to the United States?a downy mildewa water molda cellular slime moldan acellular slime mold
64Explain how algal blooms can be harmful. Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Assessment QuestionsExplain how algal blooms can be harmful.Answer: When food supply dwindles,dinoflagellates in large numbers. Asdead algae decompose, the oxygensupply in the water is depleted,suffocating fish and other marineorganisms. Other fish can suffocatewhen their gills fill with dinoflagellates.
65Which environment would likely have Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich environment would likely havechemosynthetic autotrophic eubacteria?coral reefdeep-ocean volcanic ventlake in the mountainssoil near a spring
66Which number represents an organelle that Chapter 19ProtistsChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich number represents an organelle thatcaptures energy for the cell from sunlight?1234
67Grouping protists according to the way they Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeTrue or FalseGrouping protists according to the way theyobtain nutrition is a useful classificationsystem that explains evolutionaryrelationships.
68Which word refers to an animal that uses Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhich word refers to an animal that usesa whiplike structure for locomotion?cilioplanktondinociliateflagellophorezooflagellate
69What can you determine about a protist that has contractile vacuoles? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhat can you determine about a protistthat has contractile vacuoles?It ingests food particles.It is capable of locomotion.It excretes digested wastes.It lives in fresh water.
70Why is this process not considered sexual reproduction? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhy is this process not considered sexualreproduction?
71It only involves micronuclei. Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeIt only involves micronuclei.No new organisms are formed.DNA is not transferred between cells.It occurs between single-celledorganisms.
72Which is not true of acellular slime molds? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not true of acellular slime molds?no flagellamultiple nucleino cell wallsbegin as spores
73Which are the spores in the life cycle of the sporozoan Plasmodium? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhich are the spores in the life cycle ofthe sporozoan Plasmodium?the merozoitesthe sporozoites
74What is the function of secondary pigments in many algae? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the function of secondary pigmentsin many algae?to absorb light energy in deep waterto emit light in aquatic environmentsto reflect colors other than greento store food other than carbohydrates
75At certain times of the year along ocean Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeAt certain times of the year along oceanshorelines, the waves appear to glow atnight. What organisms likely cause this?chrysophytesdiatomsdinoflagellatesluminoids
76Why are euglenoids challenging to classify? Chapter 19ProtistsStandardized Test PracticeWhy are euglenoids challenging to classify?They have both flagella and eyespots.They have mitochondria but no cell wall.They are both photosynthetic andheterotrophic.Some absorb nutrients, others ingestorganisms.