Presentation on theme: "1 Behavior Plan Practicum: Developing and Scoring High Quality Behavior Plans Diana Browning Wright, M.S, L.E.P, Behavior Analyst Director-Ca. Dept. of."— Presentation transcript:
1 Behavior Plan Practicum: Developing and Scoring High Quality Behavior Plans Diana Browning Wright, M.S, L.E.P, Behavior Analyst Director-Ca. Dept. of Education- Positive Environments, Network of Trainers Education Consultant-LRP Legal Publications
2 Positive Environments, Network of Trainers Your one stop shop!
3 Objectives Practice using the BSP Quality Evaluation Scoring Guide Be prepared to lead site teams
4 Are you a dog person?
5 Or a cat person?
6 In every classroom you get both! But in your program, you may have ALL Cats!
7 Come Spot, Come!
8 Here Kitty, Kitty!
9 Average Day for a Teacher
10 “Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills The number one step in effective support of diverse learners, e.g., learning differences, cultural or subcultural differences, language learners and learning disorders The student must feel entirely safe from humiliation and its lethal effects – excessive negative comments – conspicuous negative comments – policies that openly expose or stigmatize
11 Why use “Humiliation Protection”? – Leads to Development of Resilience and Carl and Fred Relationships Why not just use fast, negative practices? – They result in serious complications behavioral motivational affective …AND THEY DON’T WORK! Humiliation Protection Strategy
12 Do You Protect Us?
13 What about us?
14 Resilience Thriving in life despite risk factors 40 Developmental Assets Model – See Drugs in home Learning disabilities Violence exposure Poor peer models Absent parents Disturbed parents Poverty Mental retardation
15 Behavior Support Plans Why? It’s the law! It is best practice It improves outcomes It increases staff morale
16 Beginning with IDEA 1997….. Behavior impeding learning of student or peers Strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies and support Public agency shall ensure that each teacher and provider is informed of their specific responsibilities to accommodate, modify and support…. 45 day placement: services to be sure behavior doesn’t reoccur
17 Continuing with IDEA 2005; Regs 2006….. Behavior impeding learning of student or peers Strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies and support (removed, but comments state it is ASSUMED we do this-- Public agency shall ensure that each teacher and provider is informed of their specific responsibilities to accommodate, modify and support…. During any 45 day placement: services to be sure behavior doesn’t reoccur
18 Behavior Support Plans - Why? “I know the kids don’t like you and they pick on you, but you have to go to school… you’re the teacher!”
20 Behavior Support Plans For whom? Ultimately, to remove barriers to academic success: Any student who needs one! Tier 1: positive techniques for all Tier II: team-developed individualized positive techniques; add BSP if needed Tier III: highly individualized, multiple services and well designed, continuous data
21 Behavior Support Plans Who makes up the team? Everyone relevant to the implementation Legal requirements for IEP and 504
24 In a lot of plans I see, it is impossible to tell what to do.
29 Behavior Support Plans Focus on… SUPPORT vs. Management
30 Behavior Support Plans Focus on… FUNCTION vs. Consequences
31 Behavior Support Plans Focus on… ANTECEDENTS vs. Consequences
32 Behavior Support Plans Focus on… TEACHING vs. Controlling
33 QUALITY BSPs All effective plans address both the environment and the function of the behavior – Change environments to eliminate the need to use this behavior – Teach alternative, acceptable (replacement) behaviors which allow student to get or reject something.
34 Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to train staff on the key concepts of applied behavioral analysis
35 Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to improve the quality of BSPs AS they are being written
36 Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use when a BSP has not been successful.
37 Multiple Purposes of a Scoring Guide Use to keep proper focus balance between positive behavioral interventions and potential future disciplinary considerations.
38 Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to improve your ability to legally defend the team’s Behavior Plan.
39 BSP QE: What is it? Measures the extent to which the 6 consensus criteria components of effective positive behavior support are present in a behavior plan Produces scores of Adequate (Good or Superior points) or Inadequate (Underdeveloped to Weak points) Examines 12 areas for quality and internal consistency
40 BSP-QE evaluates 6 Keys 1.Behavior serves a purpose 2.Behavior is related to environment 3.BSPs should address both purpose (through replacement behavior) and environment (remove need for problem behavior to attain the goal)
41 BSP-QE evaluates 6 Keys 4.New behavior must be taught (or elicited) and reinforced 5.Reactive strategies should be described (cue replacement behavior taught, specify how to handle the problem behavior, debrief following the behavior, consequences [if required]) 6.Communication should be two-way between team members and stakeholders, specifying manner, frequency and nature of the communication
44 What IS the Positive Behavior Support Process ? A data-driven team approach with built-in accountability – Follows a carefully look at the context of the problem behavior – Hypothesizes why the behavior is occurring. – Develops a plan to teach the student a replacement behavior and new skills – Changes environments to match student needs – Involves people who really care about the student – Develops a written plan capturing the team’s decisions and methods
45 This team cannot develop effective BSPs.
46 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Behavior serves a purpose for the student. All behaviors, including problem behavior, allow the student to get a need met (i.e., behavior serves a function). Although all functions are legitimate and desirable, the method or form of the behavior may require alteration.
47 Key Concept: This behavior has worked in the past, or it is currently working to either: 1)get something the student desires or 2)avoid or protest something the student wishes to remove.
48 Why? Review Function Chart in packet
51 Development counts! See charts
52 Requirement: A behavior plan must identify the function of the problem behavior. This is necessary in order to develop a plan that teaches an alternative replacement behavior that serves the same function.
55 Method: Observing the student in the problem situation and interviewing others who are frequently present when the problem occurs is required. Focusing on the student’s facial expression and the response of others often yields cues as to what the function of the behavior may be.
57 Examples of functions of behavior: Billy Billy throws his work on the floor because it is hard work for him. When he does this, his face shows anger and frustration. His actions are a protest.
58 Examples of functions of behavior: Dolores Dolores giggles and disrupts peers around her because she enjoys the attention and reactions she gets and her face shows pleasure and excitement. Her actions are to get social attention, even when that attention from peers is one of displeasure and disapproval.
59 Examples of functions of behavior: Bruce Bruce uses swear words not related to what is going on around him. His face shows pleasure and excitement and he uses these words as a method of starting a conversation, e.g., his peers immediately tell him not to use these words and start conversing with him about the use of appropriate language. His actions are to get social interactions started.
60 Function of Behavior: See supplementary handouts Complete the activity in teams 1)get something the student desires or 2)avoid or protest something the student wishes to remove.
61 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Behavior is related to the context/ environment in which it occurs. Key Concept: Something is either present in the environment, or NOT present in the environment which increases the like- lihood the problem behavior will occur.
62 Requirement: The behavior plan must identify what environmental features support the problem behavior. This is necessary in order to know what environmental changes will remove the student’s need to use the problem behavior to achieve something he or she desired.
63 Method: Observing the student in the problem situation and interviewing others who are frequently present when the problem occurs is required. Focusing on everything going on around the student, the nature of the instruction, interactions with and around the student, and the work output required by the curriculum is necessary to understand why the student uses this problem behavior in that particular place, at that time.
64 Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Billy Billy has NOT YET received support to complete difficult work. He throws math or reading worksheets that appear long and hard to him on the floor.
65 Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Dolores Dolores has NOT YET received direct instruction on how to appropriately make and keep friends. Her peers reinforce her behavior inadvertently by their strong responses. Her peers have neither learned how to reinforce her for appropriate behavior, nor learned how to change their loud expressions of disapproval in response to Dolores’ behavior.
66 Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Bruce Bruce has NOT YET received instruction on how to initiate social conversation without the use of his attention-getting swear words. His peers have not learned how to direct Bruce to use the alternative method of attention-seeking rather than giving him attention by correcting him for his attention-seeking behaviors. They will be important in shaping a new behavior.
67 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: There are two strands to a complete behavior plan. Key Concept: Changing behavior requires addressing both the environmental features (removing the need for use of problem behavior to get needs met) AND developing a replacement behavior (teaching a functionally-equivalent behavior that student can use to get that same need met in an acceptable way).
68 Requirement: A complete behavior plan must address both strands: make environmental changes that support acceptable behavior, AND specify how to teach or elicit functionally equivalent acceptable behavior and new skills.
69 Method: Writing an effective two strand plan requires a collaborative team that includes plan implementers and other important, supportive people in the student’s life such as family members, any agency personnel (e.g., social workers, mental health providers, probation officers) and of course the student if his/her participation is possible.
70 Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Billy Billy’s team decided, and his teacher agreed, that she will alter his assignments so that hard work will not appear overwhelming to him (remove need to protest). Billy will be taught an acceptable protest for work that appears difficult, such as calling the teacher over and telling her the work appears long and hard (functionally- equivalent alternative behavior).
71 Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Dolores Dolores’ team, decided she will receive instruction on how to make and keep friends. Her peers will receive instruction in how to calmly redirect her to use appropriate interactions to achieve their brief expressions of approval (remove need to get social attention in maladaptive ways). Dolores will learn brief interactions during work periods that result in social approval from her peers, yet do not disrupt others (get social attention with functionally-equivalent alternative behavior).
72 Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Bruce Bruce’s teachers will provide collaborative learning opportunities that allow Bruce to be in sustained social interactions with his peers (removes need to use swear words to start a social interaction). Bruce will be taught specific social interaction initiation techniques and his peers will be taught how to prompt him to use these techniques (functionally equivalent ways of starting a social dialogue).
73 Requirement: The behavior plan must specify reinforcement for the new functionally equivalent behavior. The behavior plan may also wish to specify general reinforcement for positive behaviors as well. Often a general lack of reinforcement available for following class rules will increase a wide range of problem behaviors. When reinforcement is given to all students for a wide range of positive behaviors, dramatically decreases in problem behaviors occurs.
74 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: New behavior must get a pay-off as big or bigger than the problem behavior. Key Concept: To achieve maintenance of a new behavior, it must be reinforced. Reinforcement is actions we take, privileges or tangibles we give, that the student really wants to get, and therefore he/she does the behavior again and again to get that reinforcement.
75 Shape Model Cue
76 Shaping Defined Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to an end goal
78 5:1 Gets the job done!!!
80 Class wide Systems to Cue, Shape and Model Behavior: Strategies for Teachers Stop & Think Stop! Think… Make a good choice? Make a bad choice? What are you going to do? Make a good choice! Pat on the back STOP AND THINK
81 What is fair? Fair is not everyone getting the same thing. Fair is everyone getting what they need.
82 Reinforcement Considers: Power Frequency Variety Immediacy Reinforcer: evidence present that it will change behavior Reward: guessing it will change behavior
86 Method: Find out what the student typically seeks in the environment. Ask the student and observe him/her in the situation or have the student complete a “reinforcement survey” of things s/he would want to earn. Does she like computer games? Adults to praise her work? Opportunities to be first in line? Make access to the reinforcer you discover contingent on performing the desired behavior. Parental reinforcement for progress should also be considered.
87 Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Billy Billy’s teacher will praise his use of the new form of protest behavior his behavior plan suggests, i.e., calling her over to tell the teacher the work looks hard. (Efficacy evidence: Billy’s classroom and home behavior shows he is really pleased by any positive attention from adults.) She will also send home daily report cards describing his use of the new behavior and Billy’s parents will amply praise his new skill at home.
88 Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Dolores Dolores’ circle of friends will meet daily for 5 minutes at recess to praise Dolores for her quiet, quick checking in with them during a work period that does not disrupt work. Dolores and her friends will all receive points toward lunch with the teacher for their teamwork and support of each other. (Efficacy evidence: Dolores and her friends chose this reinforcer at the beginning of the intervention, telling the teacher how much they wanted the opportunity to be in the “lunch crew” they had observed other students earning).
89 Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Bruce Bruce’s friends will award him “friendly talking” points and a “high five” gestural acknowledgement each time he tries to start a conversation using the language scripts he has been taught. The teacher will allow Bruce to choose from a menu of tangible and activity reinforcers for every 10 points earned. (Efficacy evidence: Bruce loves the high fives from adults and peers and says he wants to earn the variety of reinforcers on the list).
90 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Implementers need to know how to handle problem behavior if it occurs again. Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 1)Beginning stage: Prompting the alternative replacement behavior;
91 Try ignoring him. Just Try Ignoring Him!
92 Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 2) Mid-behavior stage: The problem behavior is fully present and now requires staff to handle the behavior safely through an individualized, careful deescalating of the behavior. This might include specific techniques, calming words, presenting of choices, distraction, and redirection. Each technique will likely be unique to the student. What has worked in the past is important to discuss. Some staff deescalate the student better than others and this should be considered.
94 Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 3) Problem-solving/Debriefing stage: Debriefing with the student is to review what happened, practice the alternative behavior again, and plan what to do next. 4) Required consequences stage: Clearly written consequences or other team determined actions because of the behavior are important, e.g., school and district disciplinary required actions; calling parents; notifying probation department; attendance at special seminars, detention, and so forth.
95 Requirement: All implementers must be clear on specifically how to handle behavior to assure safety of all and that the intervention matches the stage of escalation. Method: The behavior team will need to discuss what has worked in the past to alter the problem behavior, and what interventions are required at all four stages of problem behavior.
96 Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: Howard Knoff, Stop & Think Social Skills Program, 1.Beginning Behavior Stage: Use gestures Billy has been taught that are cues to Billy to use the alternative protest, i.e., call the teacher over to protest hard work. Follow the “Stop and Think” gestural system taught to teachers and students at this school.
97 Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 2.Mid-behavior Stage: Increase proximity to Billy, point to the work on the floor, get on eye level, use calm voice requiring work to be replaced on desk, wait patiently for compliance and praise in accordance with the teacher training on “4 step procedure-One Minute Skill Building (reinforcement sandwich).” If Billy is too agitated to work, invite him to take a “Time Away” in a specified classroom area. Praise his return when he is ready to work.
98 Phase B: Correction Strategies Time Away
99 Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Student decides to leave vs. Time-out: Teacher forces students to leave Time away: In the classroom vs. Time-out: Out of the classroom
100 Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Gives freedom, builds relationships vs. Time-out:Results in side effects of punishment: fight and flight
101 Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Teacher thanks student when he/she returns vs. Time-out:Teacher frequently reprimands hen he/she returns Time away: Puts responsibility for behavior on student vs. Time-out:Puts responsibility for behavior on the teacher
102 Australia Go through customs Declare baggage you are bringing in Log arrival and departure times
103 5 Rules of Responding 1.Don't direct peer pressure to a misbehavior publicly when the matter can be handled gently in private. 2.Do move toward the student creating an aura of personal contact. 3.Develop nonverbal cues. 4.Identify the misbehavior after the reprimand and direct the student toward the desired activity. 5.Direct the sanction to a specific person.
104 Ten Variables that Affect Compliance 1. Stop Using a Question Format. 2.Reduce Distance. 3.Achieve Eye Contact. 4.Limit to Two Requests. 5.Reduce Loudness of Request. 6.Give the Student Time. 7.Cue alternative. 8. Flat tone, words spaced 9.Describe minimal compliance to exit. 10.Reinforce.
105 Correction Strategy 4 Step Procedure - Reinforcement Sandwich Reinforce earlier behavior State inappropriate behavior with calm voice (“Just now, you…”) State appropriate behavior with a dangling sentence – Require response – Require performance Reinforce compliance Building Instructional Control
106 Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 3.Debriefing Stage: Ask Billy why he chose the old form of protest rather than his new alternative. Have Billy help fill out the daily report card communicating the poor choice he made and what Billy and the teacher will do next time to help assure the new behavior to protest is selected.
107 Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s Daily Report Card
108 Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 4.Consequences Stage: If the behavior escalates to loud swearing, Billy will be sent to the counselor to complete a written process, “My Inappropriate Behavior,” which may or may not result in a suspension or other school disciplinary procedures given by the Vice Principal for the disruptive behavior.
109 The “flight attendant” approach Maintain instructional control Maintain stimulus control Build behavioral momentum
110 Instructional Control Following any direction given by a teacher.
111 Stimulus Control Doing what I should be doing in that setting (e.g., doing seatwork at my seat)
112 Building Behavioral Momentum First some irresistible tasks, then follow with less desired
113 Behavior correction that minimally disrupts the “flow of instruction” Maintains the relationship Allows time for compliance Delivers precise commands If you ask me what to do about a kid being ‘off task’, my first response is going to be, ‘What's the task?’" (Alfie Kohn)
114 Mentorship for Students with Difficulties Unconditional positive regard and support – Goal: The mentored student feels, “He/she cares about you all the time, not just when I behave acceptably” Coaching the student to: – think through the situation – discuss better ways to handle the situation Coaching may include: – practice for future situations – a paperwork process, role playing, or simple verbal dialogue
115 Mentor’s Duties Provide unconditional love and support Meet with the student regularly Check on work, effort, attitude, grades Offer friendship and guidance Assist student in understanding the school’s position Help school staff understand any of the student’s extenuating circumstances
116 Mentor’s Duties Provide respite/”safe haven” Serve as an alternative to study hall or independent study when appropriate Use praise/other reinforcers to recognize achievement, growth or effort Support success Care!
117 Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s “My Inappropriate Behavior”
118 Positive Behavioral Support Principle: On-going communication needs to be between all important stakeholders in the student’s life. Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify who communicates with whom, how frequently and in what manner. Two-way communication between message senders and recipients is important.
119 Requirement: The communication needs to be frequently enough to result in the continuous teaming necessary to achieve success. Method: Communication ideas: sent home in writing, through messages on or voice mail, through posting on a teacher’s answering machine in school (if information can be communicated in codes to assure confidentiality) or face-to-face.
120 Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 1.Communication between: parents, teacher, school counselor, therapist from Department of Mental Health, school principal
121 Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 2.Frequency: a.Daily: Report card on use of replacement behavior will be sent home; parents report back on praise or other reinforcers for accomplishment they gave Billy each day. b.Weekly: Teacher will send weekly summary of Billy’s behavior to principal, school counselor, parents and therapist through
122 Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 2.Frequency: c.Per Incident: Episodes of protest that include throwing furniture or loud swearing will be reported to the school counselor, who will debrief and send “My Inappropriate Behavior” analysis sheet to the principal, therapist, family, teacher. Therapist and parents will communicate any discussions with Billy about the incident which have yielded important insights about future interventions to counselor, who will inform others as needed.
123 Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 3.Manner: a.Daily: written report hand carried by Billy to parents b.Weekly: summaries using a report chart c.Per Incident: paper copy to principal, teacher. scanned copy to therapist, family
124 What does the BSP QE measure? n Extent to which this plan reflects a team developed plan in alignment with principles of behavioral change from the field of applied behavior analysis n Those are the behavior change principles we just reviewed !
125 What the QE does NOT measure
126 What the QE does NOT measure Whether the new behaviors, interventions, environmental changes, and reinforcers fit the student Whether this plan is developmentally appropriate for this student
127 Who is this student? Current developmental stage Skill mastery levels Personality, temperament, and other unique characteristics Team members must know the student well to develop an effective plan
128 What the QE does NOT measure Whether the hypothesized function is correct
129 What the QE does NOT measure Whether the plan was or will be implemented consistently and skillfully
130 The BSP QE Analysis Areas _____ A.Problem Behavior _____ B.Predictors of Behavior _____ C.Analyzing What is Supporting Problem Behavior _____ D.Environmental Changes _____ E.Predictors Related to Function _____ F.Function Related to Replacement Behaviors _____ G.Teaching Strategies _____H. Reinforcement _____ I. Reactive Strategies _____ J. Goals and Objectives _____ K.Team Coordination _____L.Communication _____Total Score (X /24)
131 The BSP QE Analysis Results Fewer than 12 points = Weak Plan This plan may affect some change in problem behavior but the written plan only weakly expresses the principles of behavior change. This plan should be rewritten. 13 – 16 points = Underdeveloped Plan This plan may affect some change in problem behavior but would require a number of alterations for the written plan to clearly embody best practice. Consider alterations. 17 – 21 points = Good Plan This plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and elements of best practice are present. 22 – 24 points = Superior Plan This plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and embodies best practice.
132 Area Eval- uated & BSP Line A-L Scoring Criteria 0-2 Actual Examples Student who refuses to do work Key Concepts Clarify scoring or extend your understanding Layout of the Scoring Guide
134 Scoring Suggestions Look at the criteria for 2 first. If it’s not met, look at 0. Figure a 1 from there.
137 Scoring Problems When there is lots of extraneous information, such as curriculum adaptations not relevant to the problem behavior IGNORE IT!!
138 Scoring Problems “Logically related” means that you can grasp the connection between the items. DON’T OVERANALYZE!
139 Scoring Suggestions Score leniently if you have reason to believe that the principles and key concepts are there.
140 Scoring Problem Writing a “ gold standard ” goal and objective in the era of accountability 6 Key Components for Scoring A Complete Goal or Objective 1.) by when 2)who 3) will do what 4) under what conditions 5.) at what level of proficiency 6.) as measured by whom, and how?
141 6 format for increase and decrease By when Who Will do what Under what conditions At what level of proficiency as measured by whom and how
142 Expanded: 9 format for FERB By when Instead of x behavior For the purpose of y Who Will do what (new behavior) For the purpose of y Under what conditions At what level of proficiency As measured by whom and how
143 Example Goals: adequate/inadequate? Why? See bsp-qe p. 19 Decrease type: 1. Mike will stop fighting on the playground – STOP—WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS FROM DIANA Increase type: 2. By Mike will use appropriate behaviors on the playground - STOP—WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS FROM DIANA
144 Example Goals: adequate/inadequate? Why? See bsp-qe p. 19 Functionally equivalent type?: By Mike will substitute appropriate behaviors (seeking help, walking away or verbally problem-solving as taught by the counselor) in lieu of physical aggression as measured by counselor observations and recording on an IEP team designed record sheet for 90% of yard observations.
145 Hint Write all goals using a chart format See bsp-qe p. 19 See behavior goal manual (www.pent.ca.gov)
146 Activity- See Handouts Scoring “Mario’s” BSP gang affiliation threatened peer expulsion considered but didn’t “pass” manifestation determination placement changed
147 BSP How To
148 Scoring activity rules Minimum: 3 person team—maximum 6 person team Assign yourselves roles – ALL: Review “components to evaluate” column – ALL review “key concepts” column A. Restates, in own words for group – ALL review “scoring” column B. Restates, in own words, for the group - ALL read Mario’s line statements - ALL read “examples” column - C. Lead discussion as to why it scores X rather than Y - D. Records team reasoning and score
149 What’s the research? PENT Develop a quantifiable approach for comparison of plans Determine best teaching methods
150 Training Improves Plan Quality Underdeveloped 28% Weak 30% Superior 6% Good 36% Weak 16% Superior 18% Good 47% SUMMIT Pre-Summit Plans Post-Summit Plans χ 2 = 15.64*** These changes are statistically significant! Underdeveloped 19%
151 Effects of Training on Quality of Plans
152 Percentage Change in Plan Quality
153 Relationship Between Component Scores and Plan Quality Chi Square = 54.22***
154 Relationship Between Component Scores and Plan Quality Chi Square = 39.22***
155 GOOD NEWS: Additional Improvement in the Quality of Positive Behavior Support Plans with Additional Training!! Underdeveloped 17% Weak 7% Superior 34% Good 41% Second Round of BSP-QE Training Plans Turned in for Form 2006 χ 2 = 15.64*** These changes are statistically significant! Plans Turned in for Forum 2005 Weak 16% Superior 18% Good 47% Underdeveloped 19% Changes in Plan Quality Following Second Round of BSP-QE
156 Percentage Change in Plan Quality PENT
157 Comparison of plan quality with no training, Six key concepts training, Round one training on BSP-QE, and Round two training on BSP-QE 11% Adequate 89% Inadequate No Training 6 Concepts Training 42% Adequate 58% Inadequate 35% Inadequate 65% Adequate BSP-QE Training Round 1 25% Inadequate 75% Adequate BSP-QE Training Round 2
158 Implications: What have we learned? Additional Forum training using the BSP-QE was associated with significant improvements in the quality of positive behavior support plans. – The mean plan score was 18.57, indicating that, on average, PENT Cadre members developed plans in the Adequate range. The greatest amount of change was seen in the increase of plans into the “Superior” category. – 34% of the plans were rated as “Superior” compared to only 18% a year earlier.
159 Comparison of Component Scores Plan ComponentMean Beh. Definition1.78 Predictors1.80 Environ. Support1.49 Environ. Changes1.64 Function1.61 Replacement Beh1.46 Teaching Strat.1.46 Reinforcement1.49 Reactive Strat.1.25 Beh. Goal/Objs.89 Team Coord.1.54 Communication1.05 Plan ComponentMean Beh. Definition1.87 Predictors1.85 Environ. Support1.57 Environ. Changes1.79 Function1.57 Replacement Beh1.48 Teaching Strat.1.55 Reinforcement1.53 Reactive Strat.1.49 Beh. Goal/Objs1.12 Team Coord.1.52 Communication1.19 PENT Cadre Forum 2005 Plans, PENT Cadre Forum 2006 Plans, ***Improvement across all but three of the plan components.
160 PBS Plan Quality PBS Plan Implementation Fidelity Student Outcomes Current Research: Exploring the connection between PBS plan quality, plan implementation fidelity, and student outcomes.
161 Consultant Report: Relationship Between PBS Plan Quality and Student Outcomes Three ways of looking at this: 1. Decrease in problem behaviors Correlation =.43* –The better the plan, the more likely the student’s problem behaviors will decrease. 2. Increase in general positive behaviors Correlation =.32* –The higher quality the plan, the greater chance the student will increase his/her general positive behaviors. 3. Increase in student using a FERB Correlation =.24* –The higher quality the plan, the more likely the team will witness an increase in FERBs.
162 Follow-up Analysis Consultant report correlated to implementer report of student outcomes and plan implementation fidelity. – Do they agree? Consultant characteristics that relate to PBS plan quality, implementation fidelity, and student outcomes. – Preliminary results suggest that “number of ABA courses” is positively correlated with PBS plan quality and “years in education” is negatively correlated with PBS plan quality (i.e., the more years in education the poorer the PBS plan).
163 Relationship Between Plan Quality and Plan Fidelity Preliminary results suggest that the better the plan, the more likely the plan is to be implemented with integrity (i.e., implemented as written [r =.56]). In process: to determine whether integrity significantly predicts student outcomes. – Step 1: Develop a high quality plan – Step 2: Implement the plan with high integrity (as written) – Step 3: Improved student outcomes
164 Autism Outcomes Autism Study: – Pre- and post-training PBS plans were collected from Autism Specialist Teachers. – Results suggested that following training on the BSP- QE, Autism Teachers as a group significantly improved in their ability to develop high quality PBS plans.
165 Change in Plan Categories Following BSP-QE Training
167 Research Publications Effects of Training Autism Teachers to Develop Evidence-Based Positive Behavior Support Plans The Relationship Between Educator Characteristics and Positive Behavior Support Plan Quality Exploring the Relationship between PBS Plan Quality and Student Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Treatment Integrity
168 Recent Research (Cook & Browning Wright) Assessed further improvements in PBS plan quality (BSP-QE II), especially in the area of progress monitoring of behavioral change in: problem behavior reduction positive behavior increase functionally equivalent replacement behavior (FERB) use. Determined the higher the score, the more likely behavior change occurred, and the great the likelihood the plan was implemented with fidelity
169 Elements of Progress Monitoring of Intervention Effectiveness Goal Monitoring and Attainment Ongoing Communication Program Implementation (treatment integrity) Program Evaluation/Problem-solving
170 Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response May inckude individual bsp Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
171 Take home message Behavior serves a purpose Change environments, teach replacement behavior A behavior plan is not a mental health treatment plan Compare your plan to the scoring rubric