1Behavior Plan Practicum: Developing and Scoring High Quality Behavior Plans Diana Browning Wright, M.S, L.E.P, Behavior AnalystDirector-Ca. Dept. of Education-Positive Environments, Network of TrainersEducation Consultant-LRP Legal PublicationsAll you need to know about meAgenda – 2 breaks, lunch, model team approachPacket reviewNorms –ask questions about content – “I have a student who…”take care of your personal needsRAISED HAND MEANS CALL TO ORDER
2Positive Environments, Network of Trainers P E N TYour one stop shop!
3Objectives Practice using the BSP Quality Evaluation Scoring Guide Be prepared to lead site teamsTo see if the principles, concepts, methods and requirements are all present
4Are you a dog person?Raise your HANDS Why? What is it you like about dogs?LoyalObedientLovingcompanionable
5Or a cat person?Raise hands. Dog people: What don’t you like about cats?independent,Do what they wantDon’t care what you wantEgocentricHow many prefer dogs? WELL,
6In every classroom you get both In every classroom you get both! But in your program, you may have ALL Cats!
10“Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills The number one step in effective support of diverse learners, e.g., learning differences, cultural or subcultural differences, language learners and learning disordersThe student must feel entirely safe from humiliation and its lethal effectsexcessive negative commentsconspicuous negative commentspolicies that openly expose or stigmatize
11Humiliation Protection Strategy Why use “Humiliation Protection”?Leads to Development of Resilience and Carl and Fred RelationshipsWhy not just use fast, negative practices?They result in serious complicationsbehavioralmotivationalaffective…AND THEY DON’T WORK!
14Learning disabilities Drugs in homeResilienceAbsent parentsThriving in life despite risk factors40 Developmental Assets ModelSeePovertyLearning disabilitiesDisturbed parentsPoor peer modelsViolence exposureMental retardation
15Behavior Support Plans Why?It’s the law!It is best practiceIt improves outcomesIt increases staff moraleAudience –Read along w/ me p.1Ideally, BSP is what you do BEFORE the beh occursEvery student is entitled to FAPE. Any beh which interfere with the learning prcess so that all may benefitShall=mustIntervention = bsp“Proacttive acton planning to address behaviors that are impeding learningAnother reason why………………(Pg 2 goes into greater detail re: fed & state law)
16Beginning with IDEA 1997…..Behavior impeding learning of student or peersStrategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supportPublic agency shall ensure that each teacher and provider is informed of their specific responsibilities to accommodate, modify and support….45 day placement: services to be sure behavior doesn’t reoccur
17Continuing with IDEA 2005; Regs 2006….. Behavior impeding learning of student or peersStrategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies and support(removed, but comments state it is ASSUMED we do this-- Public agency shall ensure that each teacher and provider is informed of their specific responsibilities to accommodate, modify and support….During any 45 day placement: services to be sure behavior doesn’t reoccur
18Behavior Support Plans - Why? To improve teacher attendance“I know the kids don’t like you and they pick on you, but you have to go to school… you’re the teacher!”
20Behavior Support Plans For whom? Ultimately, to remove barriers to academic success: Any student who needs one!Tier 1: positive techniques for allTier II: team-developed individualizedpositive techniques; add BSP if neededTier III: highly individualized, multiple services and well designed, continuous dataI like this picture because it represents that support must be provided threshold to thresholdBS is Mandated for Special ed under IDEA whenever the student exhibits difficult behaviors the IEP team must address the situation in a behavior plan. It doesn’t have to be THIS behav planbut are suitable for all students.
21Behavior Support Plans Who makes up the team?Everyone relevant to the implementationLegal requirements for IEP and 504Depends on the specific needs of student.Reg ed, an admin, parent, counselor, student study team, 504 team, IEP team
26Looking at Behavior Management vs. SUPPORT ABC dance SIGNS- HAND OUT. HERE’S THE BEHAVIOR EG, CALLING OUT – FOCUS ON CONSEQ, EITHER PUNISH (TAKE AWAY PRIVILEGES) OR Reinforce – give check marks when he raises his hand. But ignoring the function – e.g. calls out because of great anxietly, or to get peer attention, or to derail a hard lesson, or to obtain teacher attentionOld way – all the time spent on CConsequence based plan depends on the assumption that a strong enough, tho legal, punishment, or a strong enough, tho legal, reinforcer can be found to change a behaviore.g. extreme case scenario: severely disabled adolescent boy who frequently masturbates.What punisher – restraints?What reinforcer? – M&Ms?AS OPPOSED TO LOOKING AT FUNCTION TO DETERMINE WHAT PURPOSE A BEHAVIOR SERVES TO THE STUDENT
27That surly teen with attitude… I look for tips when I’m in classrooms. One teacher told me how he dealt with this problem with his ED high school students (many cats in one class).He remembers that
28was once…..Have the students bring in baby pictures. Even the most hardened teenager has a soft spot for his own baby picture.
29Behavior Support Plans Focus on…SUPPORTvs.ManagementManagement is a focus on CONSEQUENCES (+ or -)like a GIRDLE – something slips outSupport focuses on TEACHING, ENVIRONMENT, + POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT like support hose - gentle
30Behavior Support Plans Focus on…FUNCTIONvs.ConsequencesABC dance SIGNS- HAND OUT. HERE’S THE BEHAVIOR EG, CALLING OUT – FOCUS ON CONSEQ, EITHER PUNISH (TAKE AWAY PRIVILEGES) OR Reinforce – give check marks when he raises his hand. But ignoring the function – e.g. calls out because of great anxietly, or to get peer attention, or to derail a hard lesson, or to obtain teacher attentionOld way – all the time spent on CConsequence based plan depends on the assumption that a strong enough, tho legal, punishment, or a strong enough, tho legal, reinforcer can be found to change a behaviore.g. extreme case scenario: severely disabled adolescent boy who frequently masturbates.What punisher – restraints?What reinforcer? – M&Ms?AS OPPOSED TO LOOKING AT FUNCTION TO DETERMINE WHAT PURPOSE A BEHAVIOR SERVES TO THE STUDENT
31Behavior Support Plans Focus on…ANTECEDENTSvs.ConsequencesABC danceAntecedent based plan result in environmental change + student skills acquisitionWhat in the environment contributed to the behaviorChange of the use of the word consequence to what S gets from behav instead of how the staff can control the punishment or reinforcement
32Behavior Support Plans Focus on…TEACHINGvs.ControllingTeach positive behavior: model shape cue in a conducive environment. Possibility for LASTING change vs.Controlling and eliminating without regard for environment or skill deficit
33QUALITY BSPsAll effective plans address both the environment and the function of the behaviorChange environments to eliminate the need to use this behaviorTeach alternative, acceptable (replacement) behaviors which allow student to get or reject something.The new behavior still has to meet the old behavior’s need.e.g., if throwing the spelling paper off the desk was a protest, replacing the page with a shorter page doesn’t satisfy the need to protest. You can decrease the need to protest but must offer an acceptable manner to protest.l
34Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to train staff on the key concepts of applied behavioral analysis
35Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to improve the quality of BSPs AS they are being written
36Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use when a BSP has not been successful.
37Multiple Purposes of a Scoring Guide Use to keep proper focus balance between positive behavioral interventions and potential future disciplinary considerations.
38Multiple Purposes for a Scoring Guide Use to improve your ability to legally defend the team’s Behavior Plan.
39BSP QE: What is it?Measures the extent to which the 6 consensus criteria components of effective positive behavior support are present in a behavior planProduces scores of Adequate (Good or Superior points) or Inadequate (Underdeveloped to Weak points)Examines 12 areas for quality and internal consistency
40BSP-QE evaluates 6 Keys Behavior serves a purpose Behavior is related to environmentBSPs should address both purpose (through replacement behavior) and environment (remove need for problem behavior to attain the goal)
41BSP-QE evaluates 6 KeysNew behavior must be taught (or elicited) and reinforcedReactive strategies should be described (cue replacement behavior taught, specify how to handle the problem behavior, debrief following the behavior, consequences [if required])Communication should be two-way between team members and stakeholders, specifying manner, frequency and nature of the communication
44What IS the Positive Behavior Support Process ? A data-driven team approach with built-in accountabilityFollows a carefully look at the context of the problem behaviorHypothesizes why the behavior is occurring.Develops a plan to teach the student a replacement behavior and new skillsChanges environments to match student needsInvolves people who really care about the studentDevelops a written plan capturing the team’s decisions and methods“Positive Behavior Support” is a conceptual approach that is rapidly changing how we approach problem behavior. By focusing on the following approaches and key concepts, even behaviors that have been occurring for a long time can be changed. These concepts are radically different from reduction approaches that simply try to either punish the student for the behavior, or reward the student if s/he stops the problem behavior.
46Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Behavior serves a purpose for the student. All behaviors, including problem behavior, allow the student to get a need met (i.e., behavior serves a function). Although all functions are legitimate and desirable, the method or form of the behavior may require alteration.
47Key Concept:This behavior has worked in the past, or it is currently working to either:get something the student desires oravoid or protest something the student wishes to remove.
52Requirement:A behavior plan must identify the function of the problem behavior.This is necessary in order to develop a plan that teaches an alternative replacement behavior that serves the same function.
55Method:Observing the student in the problem situation and interviewing others who are frequently present when the problem occurs is required.Focusing on the student’s facial expression and the response of others often yields cues as to what the function of the behavior may be.
57Examples of functions of behavior: Billy Billy throws his work on the floor because it is hard work for him. When he does this, his face shows anger and frustration.His actions are a protest.
58Examples of functions of behavior: DoloresDolores giggles and disruptspeers around her becauseshe enjoys the attention andreactions she gets and her faceshows pleasure and excitement.Her actions are to get social attention, even when that attention from peers is one of displeasure and disapproval.
59 Bruce Examples of functions of behavior: Bruce uses swear words not related to what is going on around him. His face shows pleasure and excitement and he uses these words as a method of starting a conversation, e.g., his peers immediately tell him not to use these words and start conversing with him about the use of appropriate language.His actions are to get social interactions started.
60Function of Behavior:See supplementary handoutsComplete the activity in teamsget something the student desires oravoid or protest something the student wishes to remove.
61Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Behavior is related to the context/ environment in which it occurs.Key Concept:Something is either present in the environment, or NOT present in the environment which increases the like-lihood the problembehavior will occur.
62Requirement:The behavior plan must identify what environmental features support the problem behavior. This is necessary in order to know what environmental changes will remove the student’s need to use the problem behavior to achieve something he or she desired.
63Method:Observing the student in the problem situation and interviewing others who are frequently present when the problem occurs is required. Focusing on everything going on around the student, the nature of the instruction, interactions with and around the student, and the work output required by the curriculum is necessary to understand why the student uses this problem behavior in that particular place, at that time.
64Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: BillyBilly has NOT YET receivedsupport to complete difficultwork. He throws mathor reading worksheets thatappear long and hard to himon the floor.
65Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior:DoloresDolores has NOT YET received directinstruction on how to appropriatelymake and keep friends. Her peersreinforce her behavior inadvertently bytheir strong responses. Her peers have neither learned how to reinforce her for appropriate behavior, nor learned how to change their loud expressions of disapproval in response to Dolores’ behavior.
66Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: BruceBruce has NOT YET received instruction on how to initiate social conversation without the use of his attention-getting swear words. His peers have not learned how to direct Bruce to use the alternative method of attention-seeking rather than giving him attention by correcting him for his attention-seeking behaviors. They will be important in shaping a new behavior.
67Positive Behavioral Support Principle: There are two strands to a complete behavior plan.Key Concept:Changing behavior requires addressing both the environmental features (removing the need for use of problem behavior to get needs met) AND developing a replacement behavior (teaching a functionally-equivalent behavior that student can use to get that same need met in an acceptable way).
68Requirement:A complete behavior plan must address both strands: make environmental changes that support acceptable behavior, AND specify how to teach or elicit functionally equivalent acceptable behavior and new skills.
69Method:Writing an effective two strand plan requires a collaborative team that includes plan implementers and other important, supportive people in the student’s life such as family members, any agency personnel(e.g., social workers, mentalhealth providers, probationofficers) and of course thestudent if his/her participationis possible.
70Examples of two strand, complete approaches: BillyBilly’s team decided, and his teacheragreed, that she will alter hisassignments so that hard work will notappear overwhelming to him (removeneed to protest). Billy will be taughtan acceptable protest for work thatappears difficult, such as calling theteacher over and telling her the workappears long and hard (functionally-equivalent alternative behavior).
71Examples of two strand, complete approaches: DoloresDolores’ team, decided she will receiveinstruction on how to make and keepfriends. Her peers will receive instructionin how to calmly redirect her to useappropriate interactions to achievetheir brief expressions of approval (remove need to get social attention in maladaptive ways). Dolores will learn brief interactions during work periods that result in social approval from her peers, yet do not disrupt others (get social attention with functionally-equivalent alternative behavior).
72Examples of two strand, complete approaches: BruceBruce’s teachers will provide collaborativelearning opportunities that allow Bruce tobe in sustained social interactions with hispeers (removes need to use swear wordsto start a social interaction). Bruce will betaught specific social interaction initiationtechniques and his peers will be taughthow to prompt him to use these techniques (functionally equivalent ways of starting a social dialogue).
73Requirement:The behavior plan must specify reinforcement for the new functionally equivalent behavior.The behavior plan may also wish to specify general reinforcement for positive behaviors as well. Often a general lack of reinforcement available for following class rules will increase a wide range of problem behaviors. When reinforcement is given to all students for a wide range of positive behaviors, dramatically decreases in problem behaviors occurs.
74Positive Behavioral Support Principle: New behavior must get a pay-off as big or bigger than the problem behavior.Key Concept:To achieve maintenance of a new behavior, it must be reinforced.Reinforcement is actions we take, privileges or tangibles we give, that the student really wants to get, and therefore he/she does the behavior again and again to get that reinforcement.
80Class wide Systems to Cue, Shape and Model Behavior: Strategies for Teachers Stop & ThinkStop!Think…Make a good choice?Make a bad choice?What are you going to do?Make a good choice!Pat on the backSTOPANDTHINK
81What is fair?Fair is not everyone getting the same thing. Fair is everyone getting what they need.
82Reinforcement Considers: PowerFrequencyVarietyImmediacyReinforcer: evidence present that it will change behaviorReward: guessing it will change behavior
86Method:Find out what the student typically seeks in the environment.Ask the student and observe him/her in the situation or have the student complete a “reinforcement survey” of things s/he would want to earn. Does she like computer games? Adults to praise her work? Opportunities to be first in line? Make access to the reinforcer you discover contingent on performing the desired behavior. Parental reinforcement for progress should also be considered.
87Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Billy Billy’s teacher will praise his use of thenew form of protest behavior hisbehavior plan suggests, i.e.,calling her over to tell the teacherthe work looks hard. (Efficacyevidence: Billy’s classroom andhome behavior shows he is reallypleased by any positive attentionfrom adults.) She will also send home daily report cards describing his use of the new behavior and Billy’s parents will amply praise his new skill at home.
88Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Dolores Dolores’ circle of friends will meet daily for5 minutes at recess to praise Dolores forher quiet, quick checking in with themduring a work period that does not disruptwork. Dolores and her friends will all receivepoints toward lunch with the teacher for their teamwork and support of each other. (Efficacy evidence: Dolores and her friends chose this reinforcer at the beginning of the intervention, telling the teacher how much they wanted the opportunity to be in the “lunch crew” they had observed other students earning).
89Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: BruceBruce’s friends will award him “friendlytalking” points and a “high five” gestural acknowledgement each time he tries tostart a conversation using the languagescripts he has been taught. The teacherwill allow Bruce to choose from a menuof tangible and activity reinforcers for every 10 points earned. (Efficacy evidence: Bruce loves the high fives from adults and peers and says he wants to earn the variety of reinforcers on the list).
90Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Implementers need to know how to handle problem behavior if it occurs again.Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify reactivestrategies across four stages:1) Beginning stage: Prompting the alternative replacement behavior;
92Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages:2) Mid-behavior stage: The problem behavior is fully present and now requires staff to handle the behavior safely through an individualized, careful deescalating of the behavior. This might include specific techniques, calming words, presenting of choices, distraction, and redirection. Each technique will likely be unique to the student. What has worked in the past is important to discuss. Some staff deescalate the student better than others and this should be considered.
94Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages:3) Problem-solving/Debriefing stage: Debriefing with the student is to review what happened, practice the alternative behavior again, and plan what to do next.4) Required consequences stage: Clearly written consequences or other team determined actions because of the behavior are important, e.g., school and district disciplinary required actions; calling parents; notifying probation department; attendance at special seminars, detention, and so forth.
95Requirement:All implementers must be clear on specifically how to handle behavior to assure safety of all and that the intervention matches the stage of escalation.Method:The behavior team will need to discuss what has worked in the past to alter the problem behavior, and what interventions are required at all four stages of problem behavior.
96Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:1. Beginning Behavior Stage: Use gestures Billy has been taught that are cues to Billy to use the alternative protest, i.e., call the teacher over to protest hard work. Follow the “Stop and Think” gestural system taught to teachers and students at this school.Howard Knoff, Stop & Think Social Skills Program,
97Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:2. Mid-behavior Stage: Increase proximity to Billy, point to the work on the floor, get on eye level, use calm voice requiring work to be replaced on desk, wait patiently for compliance and praise in accordance with the teacher training on “4 step procedure-One Minute Skill Building (reinforcement sandwich).” If Billy is too agitated to work, invite him to take a “Time Away” in a specified classroom area. Praise his return when he is ready to work.
99Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Student decides to leavevs.Time-out: Teacher forces students to leaveTime away: In the classroomTime-out: Out of the classroom
100Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Gives freedom, builds relationshipsvs.Time-out: Results in side effects of punishment: fight and flight
101Time Away Differentiated from Time Out Time away: Teacher thanks student when he/she returnsvs.Time-out: Teacher frequently reprimands hen he/she returnsTime away: Puts responsibility for behavior on studentTime-out: Puts responsibility for behavior on the teacher
102Australia Go through customs Declare baggage you are bringing in Log arrival and departure times
1035 Rules of Responding1. Don't direct peer pressure to a misbehavior publicly when the matter can be handled gently in private.2. Do move toward the student creating an aura of personal contact.3. Develop nonverbal cues.4. Identify the misbehavior after the reprimand and direct the student toward the desired activity.5. Direct the sanction to a specific person.
104Ten Variables that Affect Compliance 1. Stop Using a Question Format.2. Reduce Distance.3. Achieve Eye Contact.4. Limit to Two Requests.5. Reduce Loudness of Request.6. Give the Student Time.7. Cue alternative.8. Flat tone, words spaced9. Describe minimal compliance to exit.10. Reinforce.
105Building Instructional Control Correction Strategy4 Step Procedure - Reinforcement SandwichBuilding Instructional ControlReinforce earlier behaviorState inappropriate behavior with calm voice (“Just now, you…”)State appropriate behavior with a dangling sentenceRequire responseRequire performanceReinforce compliance
106Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:3. Debriefing Stage: Ask Billy why he chose the old form of protest rather than his new alternative. Have Billy help fill out the daily report card communicating the poor choice he made and what Billy and the teacher will do next time to help assure the new behavior to protest is selected.
107Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s Daily Report Card
108Example of reactive strategies: BillyBilly’s Behavior Support Plan includesthe four stages of reactive strategiesas follows:4. Consequences Stage: If the behavior escalates to loud swearing, Billy will be sent to the counselor to complete a written process, “My Inappropriate Behavior,” which may or may not result in a suspension or other school disciplinary procedures given by the Vice Principal for the disruptive behavior.
110Instructional Control Following any direction given by a teacher.
111Doing what I should be doing in that setting Stimulus ControlDoing what I should be doing in that setting(e.g., doing seatwork at my seat)
112Building Behavioral Momentum First some irresistible tasks, then follow with less desired
113Behavior correction that minimally disrupts the “flow of instruction” Maintains the relationshipAllows time for complianceDelivers precise commandsIf you ask me what to do about a kid being ‘off task’, my first response is going to be, ‘What's the task?’"(Alfie Kohn)
114Mentorship for Students with Difficulties Unconditional positive regard and supportGoal: The mentored student feels, “He/she cares about you all the time, not just when I behave acceptably”Coaching the student to:think through the situationdiscuss better ways to handle the situationCoaching may include:practice for future situationsa paperwork process , role playing, or simple verbal dialogue
115Mentor’s Duties Provide unconditional love and support Meet with the student regularlyCheck on work, effort, attitude, gradesOffer friendship and guidanceAssist student in understanding the school’s positionHelp school staff understand any of the student’s extenuating circumstances
116Mentor’s Duties Provide respite/”safe haven” Serve as an alternative to study hall or independent study when appropriateUse praise/other reinforcers to recognize achievement, growth or effortSupport successCare!
117Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s “My Inappropriate Behavior”
118Positive Behavioral Support Principle: On-going communication needs to be between all important stakeholders in the student’s life.Key Concept:The behavior plan must specify who communicates with whom, how frequently and in what manner. Two-way communication between message senders and recipients is important.
119Requirement:The communication needs to be frequently enough to result in the continuous teaming necessary to achieve success.Method:Communication ideas: sent home in writing, through messages on or voice mail, through posting on a teacher’s answering machine in school (if information can be communicated in codes to assure confidentiality) or face-to-face.
120Example of Communication between important stakeholders:BillyBilly’s team decided on the following communication provisions:1. Communication between: parents, teacher, school counselor, therapist from Department of Mental Health, school principal
121Example of Communication between important stakeholders:Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:2. Frequency:a. Daily: Report card on use of replacement behavior will be sent home; parents report back on praise or other reinforcers for accomplishment they gave Billy each day.b. Weekly: Teacher will send weekly summary of Billy’s behavior to principal, school counselor, parents and therapist through
122Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:2. Frequency:c. Per Incident: Episodes of protest that include throwing furniture or loud swearing will be reported to the school counselor, who will debrief and send “My Inappropriate Behavior” analysis sheet to the principal, therapist, family, teacher. Therapist and parents will communicate any discussions with Billy about the incident which have yielded important insights about future interventions to counselor, who will inform others as needed.
123Example of Communication between important stakeholders:Billy’s team decided on the followingcommunication provisions:Manner:a. Daily: written report hand carried by Billy to parentsb. Weekly: summaries using a report chartc. Per Incident: paper copy to principal, teacher. scanned copy to therapist, family
124What does the BSP QE measure? Extent to which this plan reflects a team developed plan in alignment with principles of behavioral change from the field of applied behavior analysisThose are the behaviorchange principles we justreviewed !
126What the QE does NOT measure Whether the new behaviors, interventions, environmental changes, and reinforcers fitthe studentWhether this plan is developmentally appropriatefor this studentAsking Mikey to eat in the cafeteria
127Who is this student? Current developmental stage Skill mastery levels Personality, temperament, andother unique characteristicsTeam members must know the student well to develop an effective planAsking Mikey to eat in the cafeteria
128What the QE does NOT measure Whether the hypothesized function is correct
129What the QE does NOT measure Whether the plan was or will be implemented consistently and skillfully
130The BSP QE Analysis Areas _____ A. Problem Behavior_____ B. Predictors of Behavior_____ C. Analyzing What is Supporting Problem Behavior_____ D. Environmental Changes_____ E. Predictors Related to Function_____ F. Function Related to Replacement Behaviors_____ G. Teaching Strategies_____ H. Reinforcement_____ I. Reactive Strategies_____ J. Goals and Objectives_____ K. Team Coordination_____ L. Communication_____ Total Score (X /24)
131The BSP QE Analysis Results Fewer than 12 points = Weak PlanThis plan may affect some change in problem behavior but the written plan only weakly expresses the principles of behavior change. This plan should be rewritten. 13 – 16 points = Underdeveloped PlanThis plan may affect some change in problem behavior but would require a number of alterations for the written plan to clearly embody best practice. Consider alterations. 17 – 21 points = Good PlanThis plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and elements of best practice are present. 22 – 24 points = Superior PlanThis plan is likely to affect a change in problem behavior and embodies best practice.
132Layout of the Scoring Guide Area Eval-uated& BSPLineA-LScoring Criteria0-2ActualExamplesStudent who refuses to do workKeyConceptsClarify scoring or extend your understanding
137Scoring Problems IGNORE IT!! When there is lots of extraneous information, such as curriculum adaptations not relevant to the problem behaviorIGNORE IT!!
138Scoring Problems“Logically related” means that you can grasp the connection between the items.DON’T OVERANALYZE!
139Scoring SuggestionsScore leniently if you have reason to believe that the principles and key concepts are there.
140Scoring ProblemWriting a “gold standard” goal and objective in the era of accountability6 Key Components for Scoring A Complete Goal or Objective1.) by when2) who3) will do what4) under what conditions5.) at what level of proficiency6.) as measured by whom, and how?
1416 format for increase and decrease By whenWhoWill do whatUnder what conditionsAt what level of proficiencyas measured by whom and how
142Expanded: 9 format for FERB By whenInstead of x behaviorFor the purpose of yWhoWill do what (new behavior)Under what conditionsAt what level of proficiencyAs measured by whom and how
143Example Goals: adequate/inadequate? Why? See bsp-qe p. 19 Decrease type: 1. Mike will stop fighting on the playgroundSTOP—WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS FROM DIANAIncrease type: 2. By Mike will use appropriatebehaviors on the playground- STOP—WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS FROM DIANA
144Example Goals: adequate/inadequate? Why? See bsp-qe p. 19 Functionally equivalent type?: By Mike will substitute appropriate behaviors (seeking help,walking away or verbally problem-solving as taught by the counselor) in lieu of physical aggression as measured by counselor observations and recording on an IEP team designed record sheet for 90% of yard observations.
145Hint Write all goals using a chart format See bsp-qe p. 19 See behavior goal manual (www.pent.ca.gov)
148Scoring activity rules Minimum: 3 person team—maximum 6 person teamAssign yourselves rolesALL: Review “components to evaluate” columnALL review “key concepts” columnA. Restates, in own words for groupALL review “scoring” columnB. Restates, in own words, for the groupALL read Mario’s line statementsALL read “examples” columnC. Lead discussion as to why it scores X rather than YD. Records team reasoning and score
149What’s the research? PENT 2003-2006 Develop a quantifiable approach for comparison of plansDetermine best teaching methods
150Training Improves Plan Quality Superior 6%Superior 18%Weak 16%Good 36%Weak 30%SUMMITPre-Summit PlansPost-Summit PlansUnderdeveloped 19%20022003Good 47%Underdeveloped 28%These changes are statistically significant!χ2 = 15.64***
153Relationship Between Component Scores and Plan Quality Chi Square = 54.22***
154Relationship Between Component Scores and Plan Quality Unlike the component of behavioral goals, if individuals receive a score of 1 on environmental changes it is likely that their plan will be in the inadequate range. These results indicate that the quality of specification of environmental changes is a good indicator as to whether the team or person responsible for the plan’s development sufficiently understands the how to develop or the purpose the BSP is supposed to serve. On averageChi Square = 39.22***
155GOOD NEWS: Additional Improvement in the Quality of Positive Behavior Support Plans with Additional Training!!Changes in Plan Quality Following Second Round of BSP-QEWeak 7%Plans Turned in forForum 2005Weak 16%Superior 18%Good 47%Underdeveloped 19%Underdeveloped 17%Superior 34%Second Round of BSP-QE TrainingPlans Turned in forForm 2006Good 41%χ2 = 15.64***These changes are statistically significant!
156Percentage Change in Plan Quality PENT 2005-2006
157Comparison of plan quality with no training, Six key concepts training, Round one training on BSP-QE, and Round two training on BSP-QE11% Adequate42% Adequate65% Adequate75% AdequateBSP-QE TrainingRound 1BSP-QE TrainingRound 26 Concepts TrainingNo Training89% Inadequate58% Inadequate35% Inadequate25% Inadequate
158Implications: What have we learned? Additional Forum training using the BSP-QE was associated with significant improvements in the quality of positive behavior support plans.The mean plan score was 18.57, indicating that, on average, PENT Cadre members developed plans in the Adequate range.The greatest amount of change was seen in the increase of plans into the “Superior” category.34% of the plans were rated as “Superior” compared to only 18% a year earlier.
159Comparison of Component Scores PENT CadreForum 2005 Plans,PENT CadreForum 2006 Plans,Plan ComponentMeanBeh. Definition1.87Predictors1.85Environ. Support1.57Environ. Changes1.79FunctionReplacement Beh1.48Teaching Strat.1.55Reinforcement1.53Reactive Strat.1.49Beh. Goal/Objs1.12Team Coord.1.52Communication1.19Plan ComponentMeanBeh. Definition1.78Predictors1.80Environ. Support1.49Environ. Changes1.64Function1.61Replacement Beh1.46Teaching Strat.ReinforcementReactive Strat.1.25Beh. Goal/Objs.89Team Coord.1.54Communication1.05***Improvement across all but three of the plan components.
160PBS Plan ImplementationFidelity Current Research: Exploring the connection between PBS plan quality, plan implementation fidelity, and student outcomes.PBS Plan QualityStudent OutcomesPBS Plan ImplementationFidelity
161Consultant Report: Relationship Between PBS Plan Quality and Student Outcomes Three ways of looking at this:Decrease in problem behaviorsCorrelation = .43*The better the plan, the more likely the student’s problem behaviors will decrease.Increase in general positive behaviorsCorrelation = .32*The higher quality the plan, the greater chance the student will increase his/her general positive behaviors.Increase in student using a FERBCorrelation = .24*The higher quality the plan, the more likely the team will witness an increase in FERBs.
162Follow-up AnalysisConsultant report correlated to implementer report of student outcomes and plan implementation fidelity.Do they agree?Consultant characteristics that relate to PBS plan quality, implementation fidelity, and student outcomes.Preliminary results suggest that “number of ABA courses” is positively correlated with PBS plan quality and “years in education” is negatively correlated with PBS plan quality (i.e., the more years in education the poorer the PBS plan).
163Relationship Between Plan Quality and Plan Fidelity Preliminary results suggest that the better the plan, the more likely the plan is to be implemented with integrity (i.e., implemented as written [r = .56]).In process: to determine whether integrity significantly predicts student outcomes.Step 1: Develop a high quality planStep 2: Implement the plan with high integrity (as written)Step 3: Improved student outcomes
164Autism Outcomes Autism Study: Pre- and post-training PBS plans were collected from Autism Specialist Teachers.Results suggested that following training on the BSP-QE, Autism Teachers as a group significantly improved in their ability to develop high quality PBS plans.
165Change in Plan Categories Following BSP-QE Training
167Research Publications Effects of Training Autism Teachers to Develop Evidence-Based Positive Behavior Support PlansThe Relationship Between Educator Characteristics and Positive Behavior Support Plan QualityExploring the Relationship between PBS Plan Quality and Student Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Treatment Integrity
168Recent Research (Cook & Browning Wright) Assessed further improvements in PBS plan quality (BSP-QE II), especially in the area of progress monitoring of behavioral change in:problem behavior reductionpositive behavior increasefunctionally equivalent replacement behavior (FERB) use.Determined the higher the score, the more likely behavior change occurred, and the great the likelihood the plan was implemented with fidelity
169Elements of Progress Monitoring of Intervention Effectiveness Goal Monitoring and AttainmentOngoing CommunicationProgram Implementation (treatment integrity)Program Evaluation/Problem-solving
170Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%5-10%5-10%Selected Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseMay inckude individual bspSelected Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response80-90%Universal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactiveUniversal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
171Take home message Behavior serves a purpose Change environments, teach replacement behaviorA behavior plan is not a mental health treatment planCompare your plan to the scoring rubric