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Suicide: Risk Assessment

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Presentation on theme: "Suicide: Risk Assessment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Suicide: Risk Assessment
M. Nadeem Mazhar MBBS, MRCPsych, FRCPC, DABPN

2 Objectives Study definitions and demographic factors associated with suicide Assess suicide risk factors and protective factors Review management of suicidal patient

3 Introduction & Epidemiology

4 Suicide and Psychiatrists
“ It is a clinical axiom that there are two kinds of psychiatrists- those who have had patients complete suicide and those who will” (Preventing Patient Suicide: Clinical Assessment and Management)

5 Suicide- Importance in Psychiatry
Suicide risk assessment is a core competency that psychiatrists are expected to acquire Most common cause of malpractice suits for psychiatrists in U.S.A. Patient suicides are among the most traumatic events in a psychiatrist’s professional life

6 Suicide- definitions Suicide: Self inflicted death with evidence (either explicit or implicit) that the person intended to die Suicidal ideation: Thoughts of engaging in behavior intended to end one’s life Suicide plan: Formulation of a specific method through which one intends to die Suicide attempt: Engagement in potentially self-injurious behavior in which there is at least some intent to die Suicidal intent: Subjective expectation and desire for a self destructive act to end in death Deliberate self harm: Willful self-inflicting of painful, destructive or injurious acts without intent to die

7 Suicide Statistics- Canada
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Both sexes suicide rate per 100,000 population All ages1 11.3 11.6 10.8 11.0 11.1 10 to 14 1.3 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.2 15 to 19 9.9 7.0 8.3 9.2 20 to 24 12.1 13.2 11.7 12.8 11.2 25 to 29 12.7 10.4 10.6 12.6 30 to 34 14.2 10.9 10.7 35 to 39 16.2 16.1 13.5 14.1 13.7 40 to 44 14.9 18.0 15.5 15.2 17.6 45 to 49 17.4 18.2 17.1 17.0 50 to 54 17.7 15.6 16.7 16.6 55 to 59 14.3 14.6 15.7 60 to 64 12.0 11.8 12.4 65 to 69 10.3 9.0 70 to 74 9.5 9.7 75 to 79 13.1 11.5 80 to 84 10.5 10.1 85 to 89 9.6 11.4 90 and older 6.9 7.6 7.5

8 Gender & Suicide Rate in Canada
Year Rate in males (per 100,000) Rate in females (per 100,000) 2008 16.8 5.5 2007 16.7 5.3 2006 5.0 2005 17.9 5.4 2004 17.3

9 Suicide- Statistics for Canada
Most common method of completed suicide in Canada was suffocation, principally hanging. These account for 40 per cent of completed suicides. Poisoning, which includes drug overdoses and inhalation of motor vehicle exhaust, is the next most-common. Suicide rates for the immigrant population are about half those for the Canadian-born. The rate of suicide among Aboriginals is twice the national rate

10 Risk & protective factors

11 Suicide- psychiatric disorders
Most consistently reported risk factor All psychiatric disorders, except for mental retardation, associated with increased risk >90% of people with completed suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis Severity of psychiatric illness is associated with risk of suicide

12 Suicide- psychiatric disorders
Increased risk with multiple psychiatric comorbidities 41% of suicide occurring with in a year of psychiatric in-patient hospitalization Greatest risk in early post discharge period- 1st day> 1st week> 1st month

13 Mood disorders and suicide
Account for 45% to 77% of suicides Lifetime risk: 15% Comorbid alcoholism Anxiety, global insomnia, anhedonia, hopelessness and diminished conc. Greater in MDD with melancholic features Bipolar depression> Bipolar mixed

14 Alcohol related disorders and suicide
Lifetime risk: 3.4% to 15% 25% of U.S. suicide victims have alcohol related diagnosis Increased risk with co-morbid depressive and personality disorder Disinhibition and poor adherence

15 Schizophrenia and suicide
Lifetime risk: 4% to 10% Young males Depressive recovery phase Good premorbid functioning Command hallucinations Greater risk in Schizoaffective disorder

16 Psychiatric disorders and suicide
Lifetime risk for suicide in PD: 3% to 9% Suicidal ideation and attempts increased in panic disorder Risk increased in Eating disorders- especially co-occurrence with depression and deliberate self harm ADHD and conduct disorder

17 Anxiety and suicide Increased risk with anxiety symptoms
Severe psychic anxiety Panic attacks Agitation Address anxiety with psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches

18 Hopelessness and suicide
Negative expectation for the future Being devoid of hope High degree of hopelessness associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, intent, attempts & completed suicides Association with lethality of attempt Interventions to reduce hopelessness may decrease suicide potential

19 Command hallucinations and suicide
Extremely limited evidence 40%- 80% rates of compliance with auditory command hallucinations Patients with prior suicide attempts more likely to follow commands Important to identify and address

20 Impulsivity/aggression and suicide
Increased levels of impulsiveness and aggression in suicide attempters Cluster B personality disorders

21 Past suicide attempts Suicide attempt is associated with a 38 fold increase in suicide risk Association of method of attempted suicide with subsequent successful suicide- highest risk with hanging, strangulation or suffocation 6% to 27.5% of suicide attempters will eventually die by suicide 1% of suicide attempt survivors commit suicide with in a year

22 Psychiatric disorders and previous suicide attempts
CONDITION ESTIMATED LIFETIME SUICIDE RISK % Previous suicide attempts 27.5 Bipolar disorder 15.5 Major depression 14.6 Panic disorder 7.2% Schizophrenia 6.0 Personality disorders 5.1 Alcohol abuse 4.2

23 Suicide- marital status
Risk varies with marital status Widowed/divorced> never married> married without children> married with children Living alone increases the risk

24 Suicide- occupation Higher risk in Dentists/Physicians> Nurses> Social workers> Scientists and Mathematicians> Artists Armed forces, farmers and students Factors implicated include work related stresses, social isolation and greater access to lethal methods

25 Suicide in Physicians Increased risk in Physicians: Relative suicide risk 1.1 to 3.4 for males, 2.5 to 5.7 for female physicians Psychiatrists at high risk Association with depression and substance abuse

26 Suicide- Physical Health
Disorder SMR AIDS 6.58 Epilepsy 5.11 Spinal cord injury 3.82 Brain injury 3.50 Huntington’s chorea 2.90 Cancer 1.80

27 Suicide – family history
Positive family history increases risk Six fold increase with first degree relative’s suicide Higher concordance in identical twins Greater risk among biologic relatives Heritability of suicide is 30-50%

28 Suicide and antidepressants
FDA’s ‘black box’ warning for antidepressants-2004 Analysis of 24 short term (4 to 16 weeks) RCT’s showing small increase in risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior on antidepressants (RR 1.95, 95% CI )

29 Suicide and antidepressants
Greatest risk in first few weeks No completed suicides TADS: Comparison of fluoxetine, CBT, fluoxetine + CBT and placebo. Significant decrease in suicidal thinking in all groups

30 Suicide and antidepressants
Impact of FDA warning- fewer antidepressant prescriptions in children and adolescents 1985 suicides in patients aged 10 to 19 years in 2004 versus 1737 in 2003 (CDC)

31 Suicide and antidepressants
In Netherlands, 49% increase in children & adolescents suicide rate between & 22% decrease in SSRI prescriptions Following Health Canada’s regulatory warning, 14% decline in antidepressant prescriptions and 25% increase in completed suicides

32 Suicide and antidepressants
Bulk of evidence suggests that benefits of antidepressants outweigh the risks Children & adolescents on antidepressants need to be closely monitored for suicidal ideation

33 Psychotropics and suicide
Association of sedatives and hypnotics use with suicide in elderly Boxed warnings for smoking cessation drugs- Varenicline and Bupropion Psychotropics induced akathisia

34 Suicide- other factors
Economic downturns: 2-4 times increased risk in unemployed Higher rates of suicide attempts in gay, lesbian or bisexual Increased rates in prisoners Increase in suicide rate with history of childhood abuse Domestic partner violence- increased risk of suicide attempts

35 Hierarchy of evidence- risk factors
Systematic reviews (meta-analysis): Psychiatric diagnosis (Harris et al. 1997) Physical illness (Harris et al. 1994) Cohort studies: Deliberate self harm (Cooper et al. 2005) Anxiety (Fawcet et al. 1990) Child abuse (Brown et al. 1999) Case-control studies: Impulsivity and aggression (Dumais et al. 2005) Melancholia (Grunebaum et al. 2004) Co-morbidity (Beautrais et al. 1996) (Preventing Patient Suicide: Clinical Assessment and Management)

36 Suicide- protective factors
Children in the home Sense of responsibility to the family Pregnancy Religiosity Life satisfaction Reality testing ability Positive coping skills Positive problem solving skills Positive social support Positive therapeutic relationships (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

37 Assessment and Management of suicidal patient

38 Indications of suicide risk assessment
ER or crisis evaluations Intake evaluation Before change in observation status or treatment setting Gradual worsening despite treatment Significant psychosocial stressor Onset of a physical illness (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

39 Suicide risk assessment
Collateral information Identify psychiatric signs and symptoms Past suicidal behavior Past treatment history Family history Current psychosocial stressors Psychological strengths and vulnerabilities Current suicidal ideation Low predictive value of actuarial scales

40 Management of suicidal behavior
Establishing therapeutic alliance Determining the appropriate treatment setting Interventions to reduce risk

41 Admission generally indicated
After a suicide attempt if: Patient is psychotic Attempt was violent or premeditated Precautions were taken to avoid discovery Persistent plan/intent is present Increased distress or patient regrets surviving Patient is male, older than age 45 years, especially with new onset of psychiatric illness or suicidal thinking Limited family and social support Current impulsive behavior, severe agitation & poor judgment (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

42 Admission generally indicated
In the presence of suicidal ideation with: Specific plan with high lethality High suicidal intent (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

43 Substantive criteria for involuntary admission
Varies according to jurisdiction Mentally ill Dangerous to self or others Unable to provide for basic needs

44 Possible release from ED with follow up
After suicide attempt is a reaction to a precipitating event if patient’s view of situation has changed Method have low lethality Stable and supportive living situation Patient able to cooperate with recommendations for follow up (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

45 Outpatient treatment may be preferable
Chronic suicidal ideation without prior medically serious attempts with safe/supportive living situation and ongoing psychiatric follow up (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

46 Examples of treatable risk factors
Depression Anxiety/panic attacks Psychosis Insomnia Substance abuse Impulsivity Agitation Situation (e.g. family, work) Lethal means (e.g. guns, drugs)

47 Role of medications Antidepressants Lithium Clozapine
Antianxiety agents ECT (APA Practice Guidelines for Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors)

48 Psychotherapies Dialectical behavior therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy Interpersonal therapy Psychodynamic therapy

49 Suicide- risk management
Not much evidence for “suicide prevention or no harm” contracts Increase frequency of contact Ongoing treatment of psychiatric disorders/substance abuse Communication with significant others

50 Gun safety management Inquire about guns at home
Designate a willing responsible person to remove guns Direct contact with designated person confirming removal Do not discharge suicidal patient till confirmation

51 Suicide risk documentation
Risk assessment including documentation of risk/protective factors Record of decision making process Record of communication with other clinicians and family members Medical records of previous treatment Address firearms Consultation in difficult cases

52 Management of suicide Ensure victim’s records are complete
Communication with family Support from senior colleagues Consultation with risk manager

53 References American Psychiatric Association Practice guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors (Nov.2003) Riba M., Ravindranath D. (2010). Clinical Manual of Emergency Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. Runeson B et al. Method of attempted suicide as predictor of subsequent successful suicide: national long term cohort study. BMJ 2010;340: c3222 Simon R. (2011). Preventing Patient Suicide- Clinical Assessment and Management. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. Statistics Canada website accessed on May 12, 2012

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