Presentation on theme: "Euthanasia Whether to categorize it as voluntary suicide or involuntary murder?"— Presentation transcript:
Euthanasia Whether to categorize it as voluntary suicide or involuntary murder? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxQVlNv9Oew&feature=related
“A man, even if seriously sick or prevented in the exercise of its higher functions, is and will be always a man... [he] will never become a 'vegetable' or an 'animal. The intrinsic value and personal dignity of every human being does not change depending on their circumstances.“ –Pope John Paul II
What is Euthanasia? The dictionary defines it as: The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. Also called “mercy killing.” The act of putting to death painlessly or allowing to die, as by withholding extreme Medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, especially a painful, disease or condition.
Old Greek Euthanasia comes from the Greek word Euthanatos meaning “easy death” “a good death”
Three Major Categories Voluntary Non- Voluntary Involuntary
Voluntary Euthanasia Conducted with the consent of the patient Expresses the wishes of the patient to die with the aid of others Two forms of Voluntary: Passive: which is the specifically requested withholding of unwanted medical treatment Active: is the deliberate action of killing the patient at that patient's informed request. Or otherwise using lethal substances or forcing to kill in the most controversial ways.
Non-Voluntary Conducted where the person can not make a decision or can not make their wishes known. Such as: Patient is in a coma Patient is in a vegetative state Patient is too young Patient is mentally handicapped Usually performed under Child Euthanasia applies to children who are gravely ill or suffer from significant birth defects.
Involuntary Euthanasia Conducted against the will of a patient Widely opposed and is regarded as a crime in legal jurisdictions, and is sometimes used as a reason for not changing laws relating to other forms of euthanasia
Two sides Advocates of Euthanasia say it is out of compassion and care for the patient; to relieve pain. Non Supporters say Euthanasia is a fancy way to say it is just out of convenience, without the patient in mind http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WYIeabfj0Eg
Murder. No one can attempt to harm the life of an innocent person, without opposing God’s love, without violating a federal offense, and therefore without committing a crime to any nature. Some consider it murder in terms of how the act is done, but it can fall under the aspect of suicide as well Both acts are murder under the 5 th Commandment Euthanasia occurs when a doctor/person, not an illness kills a patient; it is an act of omission.
Is it Legal? Active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Passive voluntary euthanasia is legal throughout the U.S. Holland started legalizing euthanasia starting in the early 1970s Non Voluntary Euthanasia which is illegal worldwide but decriminalized under certain specific circumstances in the Netherlands under the Groningen Protocol.
Arguments Against Legalization Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill”. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment Euthanasia will become non-voluntary Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life.
An Aggressive Drive Euthanasia was once used for the terminally ill Modern day it is used to exterminate the weak, old, or different, such as mentally ill people. Problem with the meaning of “terminal” patients: any disease that limits life even for a day. The co-founder of the Hemlock Society often refers to "terminal old age." Some laws define "terminal" condition as one from which death will occur in a "relatively short time.“ Others state that "terminal" means that death is expected within six months or less. Some people diagnosed as terminally ill don't die for years, if at all, from the diagnosed condition.
Replacing “Terminally ill” Activists have dropped references to terminally ill patients, when referring when to the use Euthanasia, and have started replacing it with the: hopelessly ill desperately ill incurably ill hopeless condition meaningless life This means just about anyone can be euthanized or that anybody who has a suicidal impulse can asked to be killed.
A change in time In the first half of the twentieth century Euthanasia wasn’t only seen as a means of ending suffering, but as an effective way of self control Earlier times showed people using Euthanasia to get rid of drunks, criminals, or just ordinary people with disabilities. Example: WWII Adolf Hitler murdered people (Jews, Gypsies, people with physical or mental disabilities, and Jehovah’s Witnesses) and called it a good death=Euthanasia Now a days advocates for euthanasia manipulate the language in order to attract people in a positive way Changed euthanasia to mean: “die with dignity” or “an aid in dying”
Health Care Containment A New York Task Force stated: “We believe that the practices would be profoundly dangerous for large segments of population. Past studies show the care for terminally ill patients consumes 10% of the nation health care cost Drugs used in assisted suicide cost only about $40, but that it could take $40,000 to treat a patient properly Doctors are being rewarded bonuses for not providing care for patients and providing treatment will lead to financial risk for doctors
Will Become Non- Voluntary Psychological and emotional pressures can be put on the patient. Patients who are depressed or are dependent on others can be persuaded into making a judgment that is not theirs. A study showed that terminally ill patients who desire euthanasia were depressed. 24% of all patients seeking euthanasia were clinically depressed. Financial issues can also be a persuading point, where the patient will feel like a burden on their own family, and feel guilty, and will ultimately choose death, to not further be an issue for their family.
What if it was legal? Question: How many do you think would assist in suicide? How many do you think would be willing to give lethal injections? 36% say they would assist in suicide. 24% say they would give lethal injections. (Source: New York Times 4/23/98)
Religious Aspect Some of the most influential people of the Church addressed the practice of taking a life. St. Augustine of Hippo St. Thomas Aquinas Pope John Paul II
A changing outlook St. Augustine of Hippo: talked about this matter to combat a rash suicide group called “The Circumcillions” They were people saying the taking of a life is a form of religious martyrdom and were confusing the taking of a life with the deliberately giving up your own life. He was the first person on record to discuss these issues thoroughly. He stated “…it is opposed to the will of God”
St. Thomas Aquinas: condemned the taking of a life with 3 reasons: 1). It is unnatural, that it, contrary to the inclination of nature, for everything seeks to keep itself in being… 2). It is an offense and an injury to one’s community because he belongs to one's own community 3). It is a usurpation of God’s power to give and take away life. Advocates of euthanasia say that it is ultimately the person’s free will to do what they please, but St. Thomas refuted that: “Everyone has free will and like everything in the world it has limitations.”
Pope John Paul II: affirmed in his Encyclical that all life is sacred. “Abortion and Euthanasia are thus crimes which no human law can claim to legitimize.” He stated: “Causing death can never be considered a form of medical treatment, even when the intention is solely to comply with the patient's request.
What is Right? Pros It provides a way to relieve extreme pain It provides a way of relief when a person's quality of life is low Frees up medical funds to help other people It is another case of freedom of choice Cons Euthanasia devalues human life Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment Physicians and other medical care people should not be involved in directly causing death Patients can become fearful of their doctors/physicians
Catholics Belief Euthanasia is a direct rejection of the importance and value of human life. Catholic teaching condemns euthanasia as a "crime against life" and a "crime against God". Christian teachings shows that suffering both physically and emotionally are part of god’s plan for us Suffering is an opportunity to make faith stronger and more constant. Suffering leads to growth in virtues
Facts Family members perform euthanasia Only 3 doctors have been brought up on charges of euthanasia Dr. Herman Sander, New Hampshire, 1950 gave cancer patient 4 injections of air into heart. He was acquitted Dr. Vincent Montemareno, New York, 1974 gave cancer patient injection of potassium chloride. He was acquitted Dr. Peter Rozier, Florida, 1988 the strange case of his wife’s suicide. He was acquitted
In Holland The Dutch Guidelines Must be performed by a doctor Must be requested by patient while competent Request must be free of doubt, well-documented, and repeated A second, independent physician must be consulted. Determination that no one pressured patient “Unbearable pain” or condition that is otherwise intolerable No available means to improve patient’s condition The average physician will have 2 requests every 3 years, 1 of which will be deemed valid. 76% of Dutch people approve euthanasia
In Oregon Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide in 1997 The rule in Oregon has been: 2 doctors must agree that patient has less than 6 months to live and is mentally competent to make the decision. one in six such requests are being granted 20% of requests are from people who are clinically depressed
An Alternative Palliative Care: Which means to control pain Can use the wide variety of treatment, to ease the pain. And now a days care is so vast and impressive, new medications are readily becoming available. The Nightingale Alliance states that 95% of all pain is controllable and even the other 5% can be reduced to a more tolerable level Palliative Sedation: The practice of relieving distress in a terminally ill person in the last hours or days of a dying patient's life, usually by means of a continuous infusion of a sedative drug. This is an option of last resort for patients whose symptoms cannot be controlled by any other means.