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TOXICOLOGY. PHARMACODYNAMICS The study of changes caused by a drug on a person, and how a chemical can affect the internal functions of an organism. Some.

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Presentation on theme: "TOXICOLOGY. PHARMACODYNAMICS The study of changes caused by a drug on a person, and how a chemical can affect the internal functions of an organism. Some."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOXICOLOGY

2 PHARMACODYNAMICS The study of changes caused by a drug on a person, and how a chemical can affect the internal functions of an organism. Some bind to a molecule or cell. Some destroy tissues, or replace needed nutrients or vitamins Lipitor e.g. Chemotherapies

3 PHARMACOKINETICS How the body acts on the drug How body removes drug Metabolites /effects on body Metabolism variations LIVER main site for metabolism Enzymes as coded for different chemicals

4 MEDICINE OR DRUG Difference? Medicines are natural or synthetic Poisons-kill cells: called cytotoxins Poisons can be drugs, drugs can be poisons Bella donna e.g.

5 LETHAL DOSE VALUE LD 50 is Lethal Dose Value Would kill 50% of population Condition dependent Varies from one segment of pop to another

6 LD50 VALUES Table LD50 Values for various common chemical and drugs. Substance LD50 * Water 90,000 Sugar (Sucrose) 29,700 Table Salt (NaCl) 3,000 Aspirin Toxicity 1,750 Detergent 1,260 Ethanol 1,000 Morphine 500 Caffeine 200 Heroin 150 Lead 20 Cocaine 17.5 Cyanide 10 Nicotine 2 Strychnine 0.8 Batrachotoxin† Tetanus Botulina

7 Absorption Inhalation Ingestion Mucus membrane contact Injection- variety of types dependent on depth of injection- layer

8 BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER AND ? What is it? What role does it play in absorption or diffusion into brain? Metabolism Elimination

9 Corrosive poisons- acids, bases Cyanide carbon- nitrogen Mercury Hg cinnabar Arsenic a natural element used for pest control for hundreds of years Dioxin a product of chemical production/chemical industry waste-carcinogen Nerve gas e.g. sarin WMD- Schedule I Carbon monoxide competes effectively with oxygen gas for binding sites on red blood cells- suffocation

10 CASES Who was Stella Nickell? Napoleon death


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