Presentation on theme: "Drugs and Toxicology What is a drug? What is a drug? –Any substance capable of producing a physiological response What is a medicine? What is a medicine?"— Presentation transcript:
Drugs and Toxicology What is a drug? What is a drug? –Any substance capable of producing a physiological response What is a medicine? What is a medicine? –combination of drugs and inert ingredients Used interchangeably
On a piece of paper write your name and your answer to the following question. Imagine you have been drinking for two hours and in that time you have consumed five beers. Do you believe you are legally intoxicated? Turn your paper in
Go to this web site Determine whether you were correct
Alcohol’s effect on the body geStudents/anatomy/InteractiveBody_flash.aspx geStudents/anatomy/InteractiveBody_flash.aspx
How are drugs classified? Origin Natural Product Caffeine Cocaine Aspirin Opiates Tetrahydrocannibinols Semi-synthetic Heroin Hormones Steroids Synthetic Valium
General Effect Analgesics: Drugs that relieve pain. Aspirin, ibuprofen, morphine Depressants: Depresses functions of CNS. Barbituates, tranquilizers, sleep aids and ethanol Hallucinogens: Alter perception of time and reality LSD, marijuana, stimulants including meth at high doses Narcotics: Depress CNS and promote sleep. Morphine, codeine, heroin Stimulants: Stimulate CNS Cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine
Controlled Substances and the Controlled Substance Act Schedule Medical Use Controls on Prescriptions Required Security Potential for abuse Addiction potential Examples INone None: used only for research Vault or safe HighestSevere LSD, heroin, ecstasy, marijuana, GHB II Some w/ restrictions Written prescription w/ no refills Vault or safe severe Morphine, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, most barbituates, oxycodone III Accepted use Written or oral limits on refills Secured area Moderate to low Ketamine, anabolic steroids, some codeine preparations IV Accepted use Written or oral limits on refills Secured area Limited Valium, mild sleep aids V Accepted use Written or oral limits on refills over the counter Secured area lowestlimited Selected preparations of codeine
Toxicology Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem, including the prevention and amelioration of such adverse effects Forensic toxicologist: limited to matters of violation of criminal law
“All substances are poisons: there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” Paracelsus ( ) LD 50 = lethal dose for 50% of population LD 50 = lethal dose for 50% of population Takes into account all mechanisms for toxicity Takes into account all mechanisms for toxicity Generally determined on animals for medicinal or other purposes Generally determined on animals for medicinal or other purposes Material Dose (mg/kg) Sucrose29,700 Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) 4220 Sodium chloride (table salt) 3000 Ethanol2080 Caffeine192 Arsenous Trioxide 16.4 Sodium cyanide 6.4 Sarin24 VX (nerve agent) 0.14
Toxicity Rating Scale and Labeling Requirements for Pesticides. Category Signal word required on label LD50 oral mg/kg(ppm) LD50 dermal mg/kg(ppm) Probable oral lethal dose I highly toxic DANGER-POISON (skull and crossbones) less than 50less than 200 a few drops to a teaspoon II moderately toxic WARNING51 to to 2,000 over 1 teaspoon to 1 ounce III slightly toxic CAUTIONover 500over 2,000over 1 ounce IV practically non-toxic none required
Dose-Response Relationships Difficulty with assigning toxicity with drugs of abuse is we don’t know shape of relationship Difficulty with assigning toxicity with drugs of abuse is we don’t know shape of relationship Linear Hypothesis
Linear Hypothesis for Drugs? If a person takes 30 aspirin tablets, the chance of death is 50%. What would the chance of death be if a person took 1 tablet if Linear Hypothesis was valid? If a person takes 30 aspirin tablets, the chance of death is 50%. What would the chance of death be if a person took 1 tablet if Linear Hypothesis was valid?
Typical Dose Response Relationships for Drugs Sigmoidal shape Sigmoidal shape Exact dose where it rises steeply may vary from individual Exact dose where it rises steeply may vary from individual Dose
Classify the following chemicals according to their relative toxicity Wellbutrin 607mg/kg Wellbutrin 607mg/kg Ketamine 77mg/kg Ketamine 77mg/kg Ethanol 2080mg/kg Ethanol 2080mg/kg Heroin 10mg/kg Heroin 10mg/kg Ibuprofen 636 mg/kg Ibuprofen 636 mg/kg
Case of the Mass Poisoning * April people at a church immediately became ill after drinking coffee * One member died * Police confirmed it was intentional arsenic poisoning * Two weeks later another member committed suicide, at that time 12 members were still in the hospital from poisoning * Person who committed suicide became a person on interest but had not acted out of character prior to death * Was murder intentional or was it meant as a prank? What kind of symptoms would medical examiner see that would confirm arsenic poisoning?