Presentation on theme: "Option D1 Pharmaceutical Products. Generally a drug or medicine is any chemical (natural or man made), which does one or more of the following: Alters."— Presentation transcript:
Generally a drug or medicine is any chemical (natural or man made), which does one or more of the following: Alters the physiological state (including consciousness, activity level, or co-ordination) Alters incoming sensory sensations Alters moods or emotions Drugs and medicines are usually (but not always) taken to improve health by assisting the body in its natural healing process.
BUT..Sometimes taking fake drugs tricks the body into doing the same function. Placebo Effect: is the process by which the body is ‘fooled’ into feeling better (healing itself) when receiving an inactive/inert drug or treatment. Ex: sugar pill
Types of drugs: Description Type of drug Drugs that target the nervous system, the brain and the perception of stimuli Analgesics, stimulants and depressants Drugs that target the metabolic process Antacids Drugs that supplement the body’s natural ability to fight disease-causing organisms Antibacterials and antivirals
Lethal dose(LD 50 ): New drugs that are tested on animals to find the dose required to kill 50% of the animal population. Effective dose (ED 50 ):New drugs that are tested on animals to find the dose required to bring about noticeable effect in 50% of the animal population. Therapeutic window (index): Relates the drugs therapeutic effect to its toxic effects Therapeutic index = If a drugs therapeutic index is 10:1, it means that 10 times the dosage will lead to 50% death rate.
Research Stage: New chemical products are isolated from existing species (plants, bacteria, etc) and through laboratory and clinical studies, their effectiveness is determined. Development Stage: Before studies are conducted on humans, the lethal dose( LD 50 )and effective dose (ED 50 ) is tested on animals in order to determine its therapeutic window.
Testing Stage: Once the therapeutic index has been established, the drug is tested with initial clinical trials on volunteers as well as patients of which half are given placebo drugs. After processing the product through other tests elaborating on clinical situations, it goes ahead to be approved by the drug administration as either OTC(over the counter) or prescription medication
Tolerance: Occurs as the body becomes increasingly able to absorb a drug without any effect The danger associated with tolerance is that a larger dose is required to give the same initial effect, this increases risks of dependency and the possibility of reaching the lethal dose
Side-Effects: Unintended physiological effects that occur due to taking drugs. However if the benefit outweighs the side- effect risks, the drug may be administered -Aspirin which is used to lower the risk of heart disease can cause bleeding of the stomach. -Morphine used for pain relief could cause diarrhoea
Methods of administering drugs: -By mouth (Oral) -By inhalation -Through Anus (Rectal) - By injection (Parenteral) Injections may be: -Intravenous; directly into the vein -Intramuscular; into a muscle -Subcutaneous; directly under the skin