3 A MISTAKE CAN BE:1. A point mutation – substitution, addition, or removal of a single DNA base.2. A frameshift mutation – a point mutation due to an addition or deletion of a DNA base that causes a major change in the genetic code.
4 Sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation - substitution Val-his-leu-thr-pro-glu-gluVal-his-leu-thr-pro-val-glu-
5 Muscular Dystrophy is caused by a frameshift mutation
7 CHANGE THE W TO A T: CHANGE THE D TO AN H THE CAT SAT THE DOG THE CAT SAW THE HOG
8 MAJOR MISSENSE: REMOVE THE “C” THE ATS AWT HED OGThis type of mutation causes a protein to be non-functional. It is a severe problem and can be lethal.
9 MAJOR MISSENCE: INSERT AN “M” after the first “The”. THE MCA TSA WTH EDO GThe body cannot make sense out of the incorrect protein, just as the sentence no longer makes sense to you.
10 NonsenseWhen a point mutation codes for a STOP in the middle of a sequence. Could be due to any of the point mutations.Nonfunctional dystrophin, the protein that helps attach your skeletal muscle to its surroundings.
11 Some mutations involve whole chromosomes: 1. Deletion: A piece of a chromosome is lost because of breakage during cell divisionCri du chat
12 Inversion: A piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches backwards Inversion: A piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches backwards. The effect can be lethal.
13 Duplication: A portion of the chromosome is copied and placed in the same chromosome.
14 Translocation: a piece of a chromosomes breaks off and reattaches to a non-homologous chromosome
15 Non-disjunction: A chromosome fails to separate from its homologue during meiosis