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Specialty Impact Munitions Welcome “Train today to prepare for your opponent tomorrow!

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Presentation on theme: "Specialty Impact Munitions Welcome “Train today to prepare for your opponent tomorrow!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Specialty Impact Munitions

3 Welcome “Train today to prepare for your opponent tomorrow!

4 Introduction to Instructor Professional- Graduated first Police Academy in 1985 Personal – Studied various martial art styles in Judo, Jujitsu, Russian Sambo, Krav-Magra, Japanese Shoot Fighting, ground fighting styles prior to developing this course. From researched and studied 5 major DT Programs – LAPD, Miami Metro Dade, FBI, NYPD, DFW Organizations – Chairman of PoliceOne.com Advisory Board, Police Magazine Advisory, Technical Advisor for Force Science Research Center, Active member of ILEETA Experience – Over 35 years of grappling, martial arts experience and real world encounters

5 Introduction to ARMA Training Focuses on Technical information needed for Product Liability & Tactical Information Needed for Street Application on Field Proven Strategies. ONLY Conducts Instructor or Master Level Courses.

6 ARMA Training Paperwork “If it is not documented it didn’t HAPPEN!

7 Student Waiver  Liability Form  Ensure Officers are “Fit for Duty”  Highlight Safety Concerns and Issues in Class  Shows “Due Care for Students”

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13 Student Medical History  Allows you to monitor your students before classroom activities  Allows the student to disclose any medical concerns they may have directly to you  Allows you to get a feel for each students wellbeing

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16 IMPORTANT Blood Pressure Warning Ensures all students are medically safe and checks the pre-condition of their HEART, BEFORE the class begins. 140/90Anything over140/90 should be medially cleared to participate in training.

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18 Participation Acknowledgement Form  Allow you to clarify all expectations of what is expected of each student and instructor  Highlights important issues for instructor to set the pace with students  Clears all misunderstanding or confusion BEFORE the class begins

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21 Failure to Respond to Training Form  Allow you to document any failed area for improving future performance  Allows for student feedback  Documents level of proficiency

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23 Student Injury Form  Allow you to document any injuries that happen during the course of the training programs  If it’s not recorded here it did not happen here!  Documents injury and situation leading up to injury!

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26 First Section Take a 10 Minute Break Restroom Drink Food

27 What makes a Good System Legally Soundness (Meaning Course content is Review for Courtroom Testimony by Lawyers) Medical Soundness (Meaning Course content is Reviewed by Licensed Doctors) Tactical Soundness (Meaning Course content is Reviewed by sworn police officers and supported Field Proven Techniques)

28 Introduction to ARMA ARMA Training Conducts over 70 different training programs both domestically and internationally at various satellite locations throughout the world.

29 Unique Training Methods and Partners Focuses on Technical needed for Product Liability & Tactical Information Needed for Street Application on Field Proven Strategies. Conducts Basic Instructor or Master Level Courses; Represents Over 45 Different Companies

30 Special Partnership Northwest Technical College Located in Green Bay, WI All programs are state certified through a higher learning of education

31 Chapter 1 History of Specialty Impact Munitions

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33 Correctional Use  Cell Extraction  Special Circumstances (Suicide by Inmate)  Covering Chemical Munitions  Regaining controlled areas  Escorting Inmates  Protecting Officers or Formations  Protecting the perimeter  Protecting Property 32

34 Law Enforcement Use  Individual Targeted Subjects  Special Circumstances (Suicide by Cop-Standoff)  Covering Chemical Munitions  Regaining controlled areas  Special Escorting Details  Protecting Officers or Formations  Protecting the Perimeter  Protecting Property 33

35 Military Use  Individual Targeted Subjects  Special Circumstances (Suicide by Cop-Standoff)  Covering Chemical Munitions  Regaining controlled areas  Humanitarian Missions  Special Escorting Details  Protecting Officers or Formations  Protecting the perimeter  Protecting Property 34

36 P O L I C E L I N E 35 Weapon Delivery Zones in Feet Z O N E 1 Z O N E 3 Z O N E 2 Z O N E 4 Z O N E 5 Serious Threat Intermediate Threat Potential Threat Possible Threat Unlikely Threat

37 Justification of SIM Use  Covering Chemical Munitions  Protecting Formations  Protecting Life and Property 36

38 Powder Delivery Systems Black Powder – Advantages Cost Effective More Rounds Available Can ONLY be fired in 37MM 37

39 Powder Delivery Systems Black Powder – Disadvantages Most Corrosive to weapon Increased Malfunction possibility Give Shooters position away Least accurate munitions 38

40 Powder Delivery Systems Smokeless Black Powder – Advantages Least Corrosive to weapon Reduced Malfunction possibility Conceals Shooters position Most accurate munitions 39

41 Powder Delivery Systems Smokeless Powder – Disadvantages Most costly munitions 40

42 Casing Sizes 37MM – Usually 8 inch in length Black Powder 37/40MM – Usually 5.5 inch in length Black Powder or Smokeless 40MM – Usually 4.8 in in length Smokeless Powder 41

43 Chapter 2 Classifications of Specialty Impact Munitions

44 Classifications of SIM Rounds 43 Low Energy VS. High Energy Only need one of both! Weather Distance from threat Terrain

45 Low Energy Designed to deliver minimal energy to cause slight physical discomfort for pain compliance or mental distraction. 44

46 High Energy Designed to deliver enough energy to inflict blunt trauma to cause greater physical discomfort and possible incapacitation. 45

47 Low Energy Rounds 37MM or 40MM Multiple Rubber Balls (.32 or.60 caliber) or Stinger Ball 37MM or 40MM Multiple Foam Baton 40MM Spin Stabilized Foam/Sponge Round 12 Gauge Rubber Pellets – Marked Low Velocity 46

48 47 31./32. Caliber Stinger Balls Additional Information:  37mm or 40MM  Black Powder or Smokeless  31/32. Caliber Ball (approx.)  5.5 or 8 inch casings

49 48 45./60 Cal. Rubber Balls Additional Information:  37/40MM  Approx. 24 Rubber Balls  Average 325 FPS.

50 49 Foam Baton Rounds Additional Information:  37mm or 40MM  Black Powder or Smokeless  3/5 baton rounds or 8 inch casings

51 50 40MM Spin Stabilized Foam Rounds Additional Information:  40MM Sponge Round  Smokeless Delivery System  4.8 inch casings  Most accurate round to date Most reliable round!

52 51 Hit with 40MM Spin Stabilized Round 45 feet from Barrel Notice no rip or tear in clothing

53 52 Hit with 40 MM Sponge Round 30 feet from Barrel Within 3 days of being hit 1 hours after being hit Shooter Sgt. Don Weider Lexington, SC Sheriff’s Office

54 53 Stinger Balls Additional Information:  CS – CN Powder Filled  Launched or Thrown  31. Caliber (approximately 180 R/B’s)  1.5 Sec. Time delay.

55 54 12 Gauge Rubber Pellets  Description - Cartridge, 12ga.. Sting Ball™®  Type - Multiple Projectile Rubber Pellets.  Velocity ft/sec (Avg.)  Maximum Effective Range - 50 feet  Projectiles - 18 (average)

56 High Energy Rounds  37 or 40MM Multiple Wooded Baton  37 or 40MM Multiple Rubber Baton  37 or 40MM Bean Bag round  40MM Spin Stabilized Foam/Sponge Round  12 Gauge Single 45./60 Cal. Ball Round  12 Gauge Bean Bag Round 55

57 56 37/40 MM Wooded Baton Rounds  37/40 MM  5.5 or 8 Inch Casings  Black/Smokeless Powder  3/5 Baton Rounds

58 57 37/40 MM Interlocking Rubber Baton  37/40 MM  5.5 or 8 Inch Casings  Black/Smokeless Powder  3/5 Baton Rounds

59 58 37/40 MM Mono Rubber Baton  37/40 MM  5.5 or 8 Inch Casings  Black/Smokeless Powder  Single Baton Round

60 59 37/40 MM Pen-Prevent or Super “SOC” Bean Bag Round Additional Information:  Black Powder/Smokeless  Glass Beads/Silica Sand /Lead Pelts  Aerodynamic or Non- Aerodynamic

61 60 40MM Spin Stabilized Foam Rounds Additional Information:  40MM Sponge Round  Smokeless Delivery System  4.8 inch casing  Most accurate round to date  Special Nylon Casing Only round which can be effectively fired in all 5 ZONES!

62 61 12 Gauge High Velocity - Rubber Pellets  Description - Cartridge, 12ga.. Sting Ball™ HV®  Type - Multiple Projectile Rubber Pellets.  Velocity ft/sec (Avg.)  Maximum Effective Range - 60 feet  Projectiles - 18 (average)

63 62 12 Gauge High Velocity - Tri-Dent 3 Rubber Ball  Description - Cartridge, 12ga.. Sting Ball™ HV®  Type - Multiple Projectile Rubber Balls  Velocity ft/sec (Avg.)  Maximum Effective Range - 60 feet  Projectiles - 3

64 63 12 Gauge “Pen Prevent” Bean Bag Round Projectile Weight - 40 gm Material - Shot filled Ballistic Fiber Reinforced flexible sock Terminal Velocity fps (average) at 10 yards® Accuracy - 4” or better at 40 yards using a cylinder bore Remington 870.

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66 Categories of Rounds Flexible – Generally conforms to surface it hits Non-Flexible - Generally doesn’t conforms to surface it hits Ridged – Generally shatters or bounces off surface it comes into contact with 65

67 Chapter 3 Angles of Fire

68 Defined as the aiming point with a designated round for maximum accuracy 67

69 Direct Angle Direct – Directly aimed into the target area 68 TARGET

70 Indirect Angle Indirect – Skipped into the target area (Usually 3-6 feet based on terrain) 69 TARGET

71 Low Angle Low Angle – Aimed just outside of point of aim point of impact distance 70 TARGET

72 High Angle High Angle – Aimed in a high arch into target area 71 TARGET

73 Chapter 4 Cause and Effect

74 Cause & Effect of Rounds Mental - Discuss Physical - Discuss 73

75 Mental Effects Specialty Impact Munitions have a tremendous MENTAL effect on an individual. In many cases the mental effects may far outweigh the physical effects and be the determining factor in the subject’s response or time of incapacitation or distraction. “A fear of being shot!” 74

76 Anxiety The action of pointing a firearm directly at an individual, and/or actually firing a projectile. The pain, and at times the appearance of the injury, may reinforce this belief. Instructor Note: Can be addressed through training. 75

77 Fear Arouses connotations and a fear of having been shot with a firearm. SIMS may cause a powerful mental distraction. Mentally the subject must cope with the physiological pain that the body feels. Instructor Note: Can be addressed through personal experience. 76

78 Panic Panic is not a desirable response due to having less control of the subject or crowd. The impact is likely to create fear, which may create a "fight or flight" response. Crowds may scatter rendering the intended escape route useless. Instructor Note: LEAST DESIREABLE RESPONSE!. 77

79 Chapter 5 Primary vs. Secondary Injuries

80 Primary vs. Secondary Injury

81 Primary Injury An injury directly caused by the use of force tool use. 80

82 Secondary Injury An injury indirectly caused by the use of force tool use. Either from resistance from subject or another officer, and or environmental surroundings. 81

83 Flight of a projectile Once leaving barrel seeks equal weight distribution – Pan Cakes, Saucer, Spin Head Wind – Round May Dive or Rise Tail Wind – Round may Float or Cork Screw Cross Wind – “J” Turn 82

84 Projectile Calculation When the distance of the target INCREASES it effects: Velocity + Accuracy + Impact = Injury 83

85 Projectile Calculation When the distance of the target DECREASES it effects: Velocity + Accuracy + Impact = Injury 84

86 Chapter 6 Target areas when using SIM

87 Blunt Trauma vs. Penetration Trauma

88 Blunt Trauma The MAXIMUM desired effect of an impact munitions is BLUNT TRAUMA - an impact from an object, that leaves the body surface intact, but may cause sufficient (non-life threatening) injury to distract, control, or incapacitate the subject. Stinger Round Injury Pepperball Injury Stinger Round Injury 87

89 Types of Blunt Trauma Injuries Abrasions - Skimming the surface skin area Contusions - Injury to the brain Lacerations - Partially hitting the skin surface from the side cutting the surface 88

90 Continued: Blunt Trauma Injuries Fractures - Primary injury when munition strikes target are directly Secondary injury when munitions strikes target area and causes the body to fall striking another surface indirectly Concussion - Glancing blows or missed target, or Falling or collapsing of the subject 89

91 Penetration Trauma The unintended and most undesirable outcome of an SIMS is penetration. SIM’s can cause Death or serious bodily injury 90

92 Penetration Puncture – Entering the body at a ’90 degree angle, breaking the surface of the skin. 91

93 Target Areas Unable to use a striking color baton chart because the chart was used to identify areas of the body for impact and injuries for striking a human, which is MUCH less force then deploying Specially Impact Munitions. 92

94 Meat & Muscle Areas Primary target areas that when striking the human body will cause mild to intense pain with NO LONG LASTING INJURY! 93

95 Primary Target Area – the target area consisting of large muscle groups. Buttocks Thigh & Calves Lower Abdominal Area Biceps/Triceps Forearm area 94

96 Meat & Bone Areas Secondary target areas that when striking the human body will cause mild to intense pain with MINOR to LONG LASTING INJURY! 95

97 Secondary target areas are skeletal areas – preferred - may result in fractures Shoulder Knees Ankles Wrists Elbows 96

98 Bone & Sensitive Areas Last resort target areas that when striking the human body will cause intense pain with long lasting injury, which MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS BODILY HARM WHICH MAY RESULT IN DEATH! 97

99 Last Resort Target Area – the target area when maximum effectiveness is desired to meet a level of threat escalating to deadly force justification. Head & Throat Chest (center mass) Solar plexus Groin Spine Lower back 98

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102 Clothing 1.In colder climates where heavier clothing and jackets are worn, rounds with higher energy capabilities will be required. 2.In a case where the subject is lightly dressed pay close attention to munitions selection, shot placement, and engagement distance. 3.In detention facilities and during civil disturbances, the subjects may pad themselves in order to defeat the effects of SIM. 101

103 Physical Stature and Condition – Is the subject heavy, musculature, or thin and skeletal, age? pound muscular individual will more than likely be physiologically effected less than a 100- pound individual when both are struck in the same target area by SIM. 2.The blunt trauma effects and the potential for penetration are much greater for the smaller person. 102

104 37MM Foam Baton-15 feet=WHO/HOW? 12 ga. Rubber Pellets HV- 22 feet= WHO/HOW? 40MM Bean Bag-34 feet=WHO/HOW? to 140 lbs 131 to 185 lbs 186 to 220 lbs ( 220 to 350+) 103

105 Immediate Surroundings 1.Is there any person in the immediate area who maybe at risk of a deflected or missed shot? 2.Identify your target, backstop, and beyond. 104

106 Chapter 7 Intervention Options

107 THE FORCE CONTINUUM – WHEN TO USE SIM’s Ladder of Force Force Continuum Circle of Force Force Modular Escalation of Force 106

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109 OFFICER PRESENCE Uniform / Badge Dedicated Weapon Displayed On a Sling Port Arms Ready Carry Position 108

110 Presence 109

111 Verbal Commands Please stand over there. Please sit down on the chair. Stop, put your hands down. Ending with “Do it now!” Professional Tone & Attitude 110

112 NON-Verbal 111

113 Verbalization 112

114 SOFT PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES Slight touching or guiding contact. Cupping an elbow to escort. Lightly grabbing an arm or shoulder. AIMING WEAPON! 113

115 Aiming Weapon Finger OFF Trigger 114

116 HARD PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES Limb Control Techniques, Takedown, Ground Stabilization Dynamic Countermeasures Impact Techniques Electrical Devices Hand held impact weapons Specialty Impact Munitions 115

117 Firing the Weapon 116

118 DEADLY FORCE Impact Weapons SIM – Changing Aiming Point Neck Restraint Firearm 117

119 Transitioning to firearm 118

120 Chapter 8 Documentation

121 Collect all munitions expended, and photographed when practical. –Every Casing –Mark Misfired or Damaged rounds 120

122 Documentation An inventory of munitions, used and not used, should be noted. –What was issued and went out –What was fired and misfired –What was lost and not recovered 121

123 Documentation A report should be written detailing the order in which the events occurred and the police actions that were required. 122

124 Documentation Report the effectiveness of the various types of SIM’s and their delivery systems. –What did I fire that didn’t? –What did I fire that did? 123

125 Documentation Document any injuries sustained and property damage incurred. –Injuries to Subject –Officers –Bystanders 124

126 Documentation After the crowd has dispersed, it is necessary to move rapidly into the target area to remove lingering groups and to prevent the crowd from regrouping and continuing illegal activity. –Follow Through –Securing the Area 125

127 LIABILITY ISSUES The court will decide whether the actions of the officers were: (1)Consistent with the limits set forth by the constitution, federal, and state laws. (2)Consistent with departmental policy and procedures. (3)Consistent with training the officer received to handle such situations. 126

128 5 Important Questions to ASK? What was the distance, angle and elevation? What was the construction of the round used? What was the size of the subject? What was the expected point of impact? What was the training of the shooter? 127

129 Questions the Court will ASK? (1)Look at the conduct of other officers who were present and/or participated in the actions. (2)The conduct of supervisors who may haveauthorized the actions of officers. 128

130 Questions the Court will ASK? (1)Were the actions of the officer's consistent with their training? (2)Was the training adequate and acceptable by contemporary standards? If the officers were not trained does it amount to "deliberate indifference" on the part of the agency. 129

131 Was the actions of the officer; A trained technique? Was it a dynamic application of the trained technique? Was it an untrained technique justified under the circumstances? 130

132 Case Law Know your laws!

133 Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, (1989) a. The U.S. Supreme Court case that defined the standard under which excessive force claims would be judged. (1)The standard established was that of "objective reasonableness." (2)Prior to this, the standard was "police behavior that shocks the conscience.“ b.In this case, the court redefined and set forth a less subjective standard. 132 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

134 City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378, 109 S. Ct (1989) a.In this case a woman was arrested and did not receive necessary medical attention after a shift commander was made aware of her condition and decided she did not need medical attention. b.Although on the face, the City of Canton policy addressed medical issues, they were grossly negligent in that they did not provide the shift commanders with the proper training to make such decisions. 133 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

135 City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378, 109 S. Ct (1989) c.There were many issues that emerged from this case, however, the primary issue was that of "failure to train" on the part of the city. That negligence amounted to being "deliberately in different" to the rights of the plaintiff. The implications of Canton v. Harris can also go beyond training issues, however, the burden of proving the Standard of "deliberate indifference" is on the plaintiff and not easy to prove. d.Court Recommendation: The duties that officers are assigned to perform must be accompanied with adequate training to perform that function. 134 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

136 O'Neal v. DeKalb County, GA, 850, F.2d. 653 (11th Cir. 1988) a. A mental subject stabbed 7 people before being confronted by the police. After repeatedly ordering the subject to drop the knife and lay on the floor, the subject rushed the officers and was shot to death. b. The court ruled that the use of deadly force instead of non-lethal force against a knife wielding suspect was not malicious or unreasonable, therefore, not actionable by the plaintiffs. 135 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

137 Plakas v. Drinski, 19 F.3rd 1143 (7th Cir. 1994) cert. Denied 115 S. Ct. 81 (1994) This case involved the shooting of a suspect who was wielding a fire poker. When the officer attempted to arrest him, he charged the officer with the fire poker and was shot by police. (1)Plaintiffs who sued on behalf of the deceased claimed the officer did not use other means of force available to him at that time, listing disabling chemical spray, a police dog, and distance. 136 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

138 Plakas v. Drinski, 19 F.3rd 1143 (7th Cir. 1994) cert. Denied 115 S.Ct. 81 (1994) (2) The court stated “that to permit every jury in this type of case to hear expert testimony that the defendant would have been uninjured if only the police had been able to use disabling gas or a capture net or a electrical device. (a)A municipality is liable because it failed to buy this equipment. (b)The Constitution does not enact a police administrator’s equipment list.‘” (c) The court ruled that there is no legal "precedent" that requires an officer to utilize alternatives to deadly force 137 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

139 Davis v. Mason County, 927 F.2d 1473 (9th Cir. 1991) a.The court ruled that the department had adequate training on the technical components of the use of force, but did not have adequate training on the constitutional limits of the use of force in effecting arrests. 138 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

140 Davis v. Mason County, 927 F.2d 1473 (9th Cir. 1991) b.In other words, the officers were trained on the how, but not on the why and when the force is appropriate. c.Court Recommendation: Training should include confrontational scenarios of situations that require decision making, then articulation by the officer as to the justification for the force used or not used. 139 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

141 Quezada v. County of Bernalillo, 944 F2d 710 (10th Cir. 1991) a.The court ruled that an officer might be held liable for putting himself in a situation that requires him to use deadly force against an armed suicidal person. b.This case involved an officer who left a position of cover to confront a suicidal subject. 140 Copyrighted by Dave Young 1990

142 141 Dave Young Founder & Director ARMA Training Website: copyrighted by Dave Young 1994


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