Presentation on theme: "EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE LEARN THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS. ACCORDING TO: FM 8-285, FM."— Presentation transcript:
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE LEARN THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS. ACCORDING TO: FM 8-285, FM 3-3, FM 3-9 AND SOME NASTY PICTURES AVOID BECOMING AN CASUALTY AND TO KNOW HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS.
Biological Weapons Introduction Intelligence says Iraq was able to produce the biological agents anthrax, botulinum toxin, ricin. Iraq admitted to manufacturing all of these before the 1991 Gulf War, but says it has since destroyed all stocks. Intelligence services maintain that Iraq could still produce biological agents within weeks. BIO
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS Definition: agents characterized by microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms that produces death, disease or toxicity in humans, animals, or plants.
Biological Weapons Anthrax Anthrax: A disease caused by the bacteria bacillus anthracis, which is found in soil and sometimes carried by animals. Spread: Anthrax develops differently depending on whether the spores enter the body through cuts in the skin, in contaminated food or by inhalation. Effects: Inhalation and intestinal anthrax frequently kill their victims. Untreated skin anthrax can lead to blood poisoning, which can also kill. Symptoms: Inhalation anthrax has flu-like symptoms, intestinal anthrax has symptoms similar to food poisoning, skin anthrax starts with lesions. Lethal Amount: One billionth of a gram Protection: Can be treated with antibiotics. A vaccine is available. Iraq’s program: Iraq has admitted making 8,500 liters and filling bombs and ballistic missile warheads with this. The UK says enough growth medium to produce another 25,000 liters is unaccounted for. BIO
Biological Weapons Anthrax Cutaneous (skin) anthrax can occur when bacteria enter a break in the skin. Scratch, scrape, cut, bug bite. –Begins as a small bump, progresses to a larger blister in 1-2 days, it turns into a painless, open sore with a tell-tale black center of dead tissue –This form of anthrax is highly treatable, about 20% of untreated victims die.
Biological Weapons Anthrax Gastrointestinal (stomach) anthrax can occur when eating raw or undercooked contaminated meat. –Initial signs are nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and fever – followed by severe abdominal pain, vomiting blood, and severe diarrhea. –This form is deadly in 25% to 60% of cases but is extremely rare in humans and almost unknown in the U.S.
Biological Weapons Anthrax Inhalation anthrax can occur when inhaling as few as 5k-6k anthrax spores – perhaps in a single deep breath. –Initial symptoms may develop in 1-6 days, and resemble the common cold or flu: sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches, and tiredness. –Mild symptoms can progress very rapidly after a few days into severe breathing problems and shock – if left untreated, death rate exceeds 99%. –Even when treated aggressively in a state-of-the-art hospital, once severe symptoms develop, 45% to 80% of patients could die.
Biological Weapons Botulism Botulism: A disease caused by botulinum nerve toxin – produced by clostridium botulinum bacteria. Spread: Via wounds on the skin, or through contaminated food supplies. Effects: Toxins disrupt the nervous system causing muscle paralysis, leading to possible death by suffocation within hours or days. Symptoms: Blurred double vision, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Lethal Amount: One billionth of a gram Protection: Can be treated with anti-toxin injection. Iraq: Iraq has admitted making 19,000 liters of botulinum toxin and filling bombs and ballistic missile warheads with it. BIO
Biological Weapons Ricin Ricin: Natural toxin derived from castor beans. Spread: By inhalation, ingestion or injection. Effects: When inhaled, ricin breaks down lung tissue and can kill within 36 - 72 hours. It can also be fatal when ingested or injected, with death usually occurring at least 3 days after exposure. Symptoms: Fever, chest tightness, cough, nausea and joint pain if inhaled; nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and severe diarrhea if ingested or injected. Protection: No vaccine or anti-toxin. Lethal dose: 500 micrograms. Iraqi development: Unscom inspectors say they have found evidence that Iraq produced ricin. Some reports say Iraq carried out a weapons test with ricin, but abandoned production when it was unsuccessful. There is concern that a castor oil plant at Fallujah which has been rebuilt in recent years may be linked to ricin manufacture. BIO
Biological Weapons Ricin Georgi Markov assassination, 11 Sep 1978 Markov was a Bulgarian journalist working for the BBC. In June 1977, the leader of the Bulgarian communist party, Zhivkov Todor, decided that he wanted Markov silenced because of his outspoken views against the ruling communist party. KGB agents carried out the task. There were three attempts on Markovs' life. The successful attempt took place in London on 7 September 1978, Zhivkov's birthday. BIO
The Disease – Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. Transmission – Generally, direct and fairly prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread smallpox from one person to another, it can also be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing. Symptoms – The incubation period averages about 12-14 days. The 1 st symptoms include fever, malaise, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. A rash emerges first as small spots on the tongue and in the mouth. These spots develop into sores that break open and spread large amounts of the virus into the mouth and throat, at this time the person becomes most contagious. Biological Weapons Small Pox
The Disease – Humans are incidental hosts and are usually infected by the bite of rodent fleas, it can also be acquired by direct contact with infectious materials or inhalation of infective respiratory droplets. Symptoms – Initial signs and symptoms of Plague can be nonspecific, with fever, chills, malaise, myalgia, nausea, prostration, sore throat, and headache. Bubonic plague, the most common form, usually presents with painful, swollen lymph nodes that develop in the afferent lymphatic chain draining the site of the flea bite. Biological Weapons Plague
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS EASY TO PRODUCE IN LARGE QUANTITIES ROBUST -long survival in storage (munitions) -relatively resistant to desiccation, solar UV radiation HIGH DISEASE/INFECTION RATIO
Chemical Weapons Introduction Chemical agents are broken down into 3 types: NERVE – BLOOD - BLISTER Iraq has admitted to manufacturing the chemical agents mustard gas, VX, Sarin, Tabun and Soman before the 1991 Gulf War, although much of this has been destroyed by UNSCOM inspectors. However, intelligence estimates that 360 tons of chemical warfare agent remain unaccounted for – and that Iraq could produce mustard gas within weeks and nerve agents such as VX, tabun and sarin within months. Iraq says anything that has not been destroyed will have degraded beyond use by now. GAS
CHEMICAL AGENTS Definition: A chemical compound which through its chemical properties, produces lethal or damaging effects on humans. GAS
Blister Agents Mustard Gas Mustard gas: 'Mustard' is liquid at room temperature, but is most commonly used in its gas form - which has a strong smell similar to horseradish or garlic. Absorption: Contact with skin or inhalation Effects: Mustard gas is a blistering agent. Burning the eyes and skin if exposed to it, and burning the lungs, mouth and throat if it is inhaled. It is not normally lethal, but can cause cancer and serious disfigurement. Symptoms: Conjunctivitis, skin burns, throat pain, cough and susceptibility to infection and pneumonia. Symptoms are not usually noticed until 1 – 6 hours after exposure. Protection: Protective clothing and decontamination, followed by antibiotics. Iraqi program: Iraq has admitted making 2,850 tons of mustard gas, filled bombs with it,and used it against Kurds at Halabja in 1988. GAS
Nerve Agents VX VX: A clear, colorless liquid – technically named methylphosphonothioic acid and described as the most deadly nerve agent ever created. Absorption: Through eyes, lungs and skin Effects: Like other nerve agents, VX attacks the nervous system – severe doses can cause death within 15 minutes of exposure. Lethal dose: Fraction of a drop Symptoms: Small doses trigger nasal discharge, twitching, chest tightness, wheezing and headaches – severe doses lead to convulsions, confusion and respiratory failure. Protection: Immediate injection of atropine Iraqi program: Iraq had admitted making 3.9 tons, including 1.5 tons which the UN says remain unaccounted for. Also unaccounted for are 300 tons of a chemical which Iraq had used only for the production of VX. VX was used in the Iraqi attack on the Kurds at Halabja and traces of it have also been found on remnants of ballistic missile warheads. GAS
Nerve Agents Sarin Sarin: A colorless liquid several times more deadly than cyanide, sarin is related to a group of pesticides and was initially developed in Germany in the 1930s. Effects: Sarin attacks the nervous system when inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Inhalation can cause death within 1 – 10 minutes of exposure. Lethal dose: 0.5 milligrams Symptoms: Pupils shrink to pinpoints and sweating and twitching precede symptoms similar to those for VX exposure. Protection: Injection of atropine immediately after contact. Iraqi program: Iraq has admitted to manufacturing 795 tons of sarin, filling bombs with it and developing ballistic missile warheads to deliver it. Iraq used sarin against Iranian troops during the Iran-Iraq war, and against Kurds at Halabja in 1988. GAS
Nerve Agents Tabun Tabun: Also known as GA, tabun was discovered in Germany by Dr Gerhard Schrader, who also first developed sarin. Effects: If inhaled or absorbed through the eyes or skin, tabun can kill in as little as one or two minutes. Symptoms: Similar to VX and sarin. Protection: Injection of atropine immediately after contact. Iraqi program: Iraq has admitted to producing 210 tons of tabun and filling bombs with the agent. A UN-backed team has confirmed that Iraq used tabun as early as 1984 against Iranian forces. Tabun was also used in the Iraqi attack on Kurds at Halabja in 1988. GAS
Nerve Agents Soman Soman: A man made colorless, tasteless liquid, with a slight camphor odor (vicks vapor rub) or rotting fruit., Soman is related to a group of pesticides and was initially developed in Germany in 1944. Effects: Soman attacks the nervous system when inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Soman is twice as lethal as Tabun. It can kill within 30 seconds. Lethal dose: 0.5 milligrams Symptoms: Pupils shrink to pinpoints and sweating and twitching precede symptoms similar to those for VX exposure. Protection: Injection of atropine immediately after contact. Iraqi program: Iraq has admitted to manufacturing soman, filling bombs with it and developing ballistic missile warheads to deliver it. Iraq used soman against Iranian troops during the Iran-Iraq war, and against Kurds at Halabja in 1988. GAS
Radiological Dispersion Weapons (Dirty Bombs) Any weapon designed to disperse radioactive material without a nuclear explosion The hazard is from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Neutron radiation Could be as simple as a truck, ANFO, and parts of a university physics or medical radiology lab
CURRENT THREAT RUSSIA LIBYA IRAQ NORTH KOREA CHINA INDIA PAKISTAN SYRIA TERRORISTS -DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 1998
IRAQI Material Unaccounted For Nearly four tons of nerve agents 1 ton = 285 Gal. 1 Gal = 768 teaspoon 1 tsp = 4928 microliters 1 Gal = 3,784,704 LD 1 ton = 1,078,640,640 LD