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Copyright 2005 - 2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eighteen Police Technology Technology in.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 - 2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eighteen Police Technology Technology in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eighteen Police Technology Technology in the Street

2 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives Constitutional and case law that has motivated the development of less-lethal use-of-force devices Constitutional and case law that has motivated the development of less-lethal use-of-force devices Use of radar and laser technology in traffic Use of radar and laser technology in traffic Technologies used in vehicle pursuits Technologies used in vehicle pursuits Gunfire-reduction technology Gunfire-reduction technology Automated external defibrillators Automated external defibrillators Body Armor Body Armor

3 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Introduction Nightstick and revolver were the first technologies police officers used to protect themselves Nightstick and revolver were the first technologies police officers used to protect themselvespolice officerspolice officers Today, officers carry semiautomatic handguns Today, officers carry semiautomatic handguns Shotgun is second-most common firearm carried by police officers Shotgun is second-most common firearm carried by police officerspolice officerspolice officers

4 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Less-Lethal Use-of-Force Devices The offender’s actions dictate the Police officerPolice officer’s Police officerresponse. Level 1 – Cooperation Level 2 – Passive Resistance Level 3 – Active Resistance Level 4 – Threat of bodily harm Level 5 – Use-of-force

5 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Less-Lethal Use-of-Force Devices The levels of use of force is not a stair-step approach…in other words an officer may not try one before the other….the officer chooses the correct response to the offender’s actions….more link a tool kit.

6 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster 4 th Amendment & Use-of-force Is the foundation for the use of force by police officers (Search and Seizure) Any time police officers stop someone, they are seizing that person. police officerspolice officers

7 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Tennessee v. Garner The use of deadly force against an offender who does not appear to pose a threat to police officers or others in unconstitutional. The use of deadly force against an offender who does not appear to pose a threat to police officers or others in unconstitutional.police officerspolice officers This ruling established the “defense-of- life” standard This ruling established the “defense-of- life” standard Introduced the concept that all force must be reasonably applied. Introduced the concept that all force must be reasonably applied.

8 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Less-lethal use-of-force devices – tools that can overcome offenders’ resistance with a minimum amount of force and minimal injury to the offender and officers. Any form of force can be deadly.

9 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Less-lethal features Must improve on present practice Must improve on present practice Must be accessible to the officer yet not overburden the officer. Must be accessible to the officer yet not overburden the officer. Must be relatively inexpensive Must be relatively inexpensive Must be ruggedized Must be ruggedized Cannot require intensive or frequent training Cannot require intensive or frequent training Must work under adverse conditions Must work under adverse conditions

10 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster The Police Baton The most widely used and accepted impact/leverage tool used by police officers.police officers

11 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Chemical Agents Chloroacetophenone (CN) and Orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS) Both work on the central nervous system of the offender. Induce pain by activating receptor cells via neural transmitters within the brain.

12 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Any change in an offender’s system can diminish or negate the effectiveness of the chemical agents (e.g., drugs, endorphins) CN Burning pain in the eyes, nose, and throat. Burning pain in the eyes, nose, and throat. CS Pain in the nose, throat, and chest Can cause nausea and vomiting.

13 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) A natural substance found in cayenne pepper. A natural substance found in cayenne pepper. Is an inflammatory agent, not an irritant. Causes swelling of the eyes and breathing passages and burning sensation. Is an inflammatory agent, not an irritant. Causes swelling of the eyes and breathing passages and burning sensation. Can cause shortness of breath, involuntary closing of eyes and coughing. Can cause shortness of breath, involuntary closing of eyes and coughing. Photograph provided by ZARC International

14 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Unlike conventional “tear gas” OC works on dogs

15 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Beanbag Shotgun By changing the ammunition, the traditional shotgun is changed to a less- lethal use-of-force device. By changing the ammunition, the traditional shotgun is changed to a less- lethal use-of-force device. Projectile is a beanbag-like round. Projectile is a beanbag-like round. Photograph provided by Defense Technology Federal laboratories

16 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Foam baton round Cousin to the beanbag shotgun. Cousin to the beanbag shotgun. Is a tactical crowd control less-lethal device (to move large groups of people) Is a tactical crowd control less-lethal device (to move large groups of people) Fired from a 37 mm launcher. Fired from a 37 mm launcher. Round ricochets into crowd. Round ricochets into crowd. Large psychological effect (noise, smoke, flash). Large psychological effect (noise, smoke, flash).

17 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Electrical Control Devices The most common is the Taser. Handheld, used like a pistol. Handheld, used like a pistol. Compressed nitrogen is used to propel two projectiles or probes. Compressed nitrogen is used to propel two projectiles or probes. The electrical charge interferes with the electrical communication between the brain and the muscles. The electrical charge interferes with the electrical communication between the brain and the muscles.

18 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Radar Speed Detection The traditional method of speed detection is the radar. A radar is a transceiver designed to pick up its own RF signals. A radar is a transceiver designed to pick up its own RF signals. Police radar uses a constant RF wave Police radar uses a constant RF wave Good up to about 1,000 feet Good up to about 1,000 feet

19 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Laser speed detection The laser unit reflects light off the violator’s vehicle The laser unit reflects light off the violator’s vehicle Using the TDOA formula, calculates the speed of the vehicle. Using the TDOA formula, calculates the speed of the vehicle. More expensive, but more specific More expensive, but more specific Dedication range of up to 2000 feet Dedication range of up to 2000 feet

20 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Vehicle Pursuits The first tool is a pursuit policy that guides the actions of police officers during stressful events. police officerspolice officers Basic technology has not changed - police vehicle emergency lights and sirens Photograph provided by Woodcrest Vehicle Center

21 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster How to stop an offender Two common mechanical means: Tire deflation spikes – difficult to deploy Precision immobilization technique (PIT maneuver)

22 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Gunfire-Reduction Technology It is nearly as dangerous to fire a gun into the air as it is to fire a gun at someone. When the bullet returns to Earth, it has nearly the same energy that it did on the way up.

23 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Gunfire-Reduction Technology Some new technologies available to detect and locate gunfire use GIS principles to provide local police officers with information as to the location of the gunfire. police officers Screen capture provided by ShotSpotter, Inc.

24 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Acoustic devices are placed on telephone poles, rooftops, and streetlamps within a one-square mile area. Acoustic devices are placed on telephone poles, rooftops, and streetlamps within a one-square mile area. These devices detect gunfire and feed information about sound and direction to a computer. These devices detect gunfire and feed information about sound and direction to a computer. The computer uses TDOA to determine the location of the gunfire. The computer uses TDOA to determine the location of the gunfire. Gunfire-Reduction Technology

25 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Gunshot Residue The use of chemicals to detect the presence of gunpowder residue. The use of chemicals to detect the presence of gunpowder residue. Technologies are improving so that the techniques can be applying in the field. Technologies are improving so that the techniques can be applying in the field.

26 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Body Armor Soft body armor started out as tire treads (Kevlar). Two basic types of body armor: Soft Soft Hard Hard Soft – a series of tightly woven nylon threads that act to disperse the energy of a bullet. Hard – Metal or ceramic plates. It deflects gunfire.

27 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Automated External Defibrillator Your heartbeat is controlled by electrical impulses. Sometimes, these electrical impulses beat out of synchronization. The heart contracts irregularly, does not pump blood throughout your body, and can cause you to die.

28 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster If your heart is defibrillated (shocked), survival rates can be high. An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a device designed to allow first responders to diagnose and administer defibrillation. Photograph provided by Cardiac Science, Inc.

29 Copyright :Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Explore Military Books at Military BooksMilitary Bookswww.military-writers.com


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