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The Life Cycle P Neuroptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Mecoptera Siphonoptera Strepsiptera Diptera ~250 Mya.

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Presentation on theme: "The Life Cycle P Neuroptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Mecoptera Siphonoptera Strepsiptera Diptera ~250 Mya."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Life Cycle P

3 Neuroptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Mecoptera Siphonoptera Strepsiptera Diptera ~250 Mya

4 Nematocera Brachycera Muscomorpha Cyclorrhapha Schizophora Calyptrata Acalyptrata

5 Camillidae Steganinae Cladocheata etc Zaprionus etc s.g. Drosophila Chymomyza etc s.g. Sophopora

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15 Drosophila melanogaster subgroup Drosophila melanogaster - cosmopolitan Drosophila simulans - cosmopolitan Drosophila mauritiana - Mauritius Drosophila sechellia - Seychelles Drosophila yakuba - Equatorial Africa Drosophila santomea - Sao Tome Drosophila teissieri - Equatorial Africa Drosophila erecta - Central West Africa Drosophila orena - Cameroons

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18 mel f x sim m sim f x mel m Viable, sterile f Viable, sterile m Larval lethal m Embryo lethal f aabb AAbb x aaBB AaBb Hmr allele of melanogaster (transcription factor) Lhr allele of simulans (chromatin binding protein)

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21 “Eventually, the story of the chromosomal mechanisms and its evolution will have to be entirely rewritten in molecular terms.” Michael White, 1973, Animal Cytology & Evolution, 2nd edition.

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24 Paracentric inversions are the most common rearrangement  Segregating in 106 out 183 species. - 57% - (Powell 1997).  inversions have become fixed during the evolution of the genus (Clayton & Guest 1986).

25 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t a b j i h g f e d c k l m n o p q r s t a b j l o n m l k c d e f h i p q r s t a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t a b c d e f g h i o n m l k j p q r s t a b k l m n o i h g f e d c j p q r s t

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27 12 genomes have been sequenced in the genus Drosophila

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33 ( Cáceres et al. Science 1999 ) Ectopic recombination between homologous fragments of DNA

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35 centromeretelomere 3R of D. melanogaster centromeretelomere 3R of D. simulans BACs 84F193F6-7 BACR07M14 BACR45A07 BACR16N15 BACR42I20 BACR08K01 ~280 Kb ~450 Kb

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38 Inversion-mediated duplications can result from staggered isochromatid breaks & repair. 5' 3' 5' 3' 5' 3' 5' 3' 5' 3' 5' 3'5' 3' 5' 3' 5' AB C DE 3' 5' 3' 5' 3' ABCDIJKEFGBCDIH

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41 Lemeunier & Ashburner, 1976

42 BLAST-N of D. mel 3R transcripts against D. yak 3R J. Ranz, C. Bergman & M. Ashburner

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45 Flanking duplications are a common by-product of the genome reorganization between D. melanogaster and D. yakuba. withwithout 209

46 outgroup species D. yakubaD. melanogaster Most inversions occurred in the D. yakuba lineage A-B A]-----[BA-B A]-----[B 28 ( 96.6 % )1 ( 3.4 % ) 1: 2:

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49 Large-scale comparison of the gene order between D. melanogaster and D. yakuba. Breakpoints Mb Myr Mb Myr breakpoints = inversions

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52 Cluster gram based on the number of breakpoints that correspond to inversions

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56 Genes within genes within genes

57 Number of antisense/sense overlapping pairs of genes in D. melanogaster

58 D. melanogaster is different from H. sapiens. RIKEN Group and FANTOM Consortium, Antisense transcription in the mammalian transcriptome. Science (5740)

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66 Thanks to: Jose Ranz (Cambridge). Casey Bergman (Manchester). Marcin von Grotthuss (Cambridge). Karen Eilbeck & Suzi Lewis (Berkeley). Lincoln Stein (CSGL) & Richard Durbin (WTGC) Hadi Quesneville (Paris). The MRC for 25 years of continuous funding. The BBSRC for a grant to Jose. EMBO for support to Marcin. The Royal Society for a Fellowship to Casey.

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69 Annotated genome Annotation Depth of knowledge Breadth of knowledge Detailed analysis (typically biological) of single genes Large-scale analysis (typically computational) of entire genome

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71 Assemblies from the 12 ongoing Drosophila sequencing projects are available right now

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