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Health and Safety in the Laboratory I. Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Health and Safety in the Laboratory I. Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health and Safety in the Laboratory I. Introduction

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3 Law Protecting Lab Employees  “Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory”  Requires:  Training  Appropriate Safety Equipment  MSDS

4 II. What is a Hazardous Chemical?  Determined to be cancer-causing, toxic, corrosive, an irritant, a strong sensitizer, flammable, or reactive.  Listed under OSHA, 29CFR, part 1910, subpart z.  Assigned a threshold limit value by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

5 Routes of Entry  Inhalation a. gases/vapors b. particulates  Eye Contact  Skin Contact/Absorption  Ingestion

6 Types of Exposure  Acute Exposure (brief period of time)  Chronic Exposure (months, yrs, decades)

7 III. Exposure Limits  Several agencies, each with its own set of standards.  Most standards are merely recommendations, only OSHA’s ‘PEL’s have the force of law.

8 Occupational Safety and Health Administration  Permissible Exposure Limit PEL: Allowable limit for air contaminant, repeated exposure without adverse health effects.  Ceiling C: Exposure limit not to be exceeded at any time during the workday.  Short-Term Exposure Limit STEL: 15 minute time weighted average, not to be exceeded  Time-Weighted Average TWA: Average airborne exposure in any 8-hour shift of a 40-hour work week, not to be exceeded.  Action Level AL: Exposure level at which certain regulations take effect. (analysis, training, medical monitoring, record keeping) Generally ½ the PEL.

9 Exposure Limits--OSHA  PEL—Permissible Exposure Limit which may be expressed as A. TWA—Time weighted Average (8 hr) B. STEL—Short term exposure limit (15 min) C. C—Ceiling limit

10 Exposure Limits--ACGIH  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists  TLV—Threshold limit value (can be exposed repeatedly at this level)  TLV-TWA  TLV-STEL  TLV-C

11 Exposure Limits--NIOSH  National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health  REL—Recommended exposure limit (40hr work week)  IDLH—Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health  Toxicity

12 Toxicity--NIOSH  LC 50 —Lethal Concentration 50 (respiratory)  Kills 50% of test animals after a single exposure in a specific time.  LC LO —Lethal Concentration Low  Lowest concentration to cause a death in human or animal.  LD 50 —Lethal Dose 50  Kills 50% by route other than inhalation

13 Toxicity—NIOSH (cont’d)  LD LO —Lethal Dose Low  TC LO —Toxic Concentration Low  Lowest concentration in air to show toxic effects.  TD LO —Toxic Dose Low  Toxic effects evident by route other than inhalation.

14 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals  Hazard Warnings  Flammable-acetone, ethanol, benzene  Corrosive-ammonia, sodium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid, mineral acids  Compressed gases-Ar, CO 2, NH 3 anh, N 2, LN 2  Poison-chloroform, cyanide salts, phenol, methyl isocyanate, mercury(II)chloride, carbon tetrachloride

15 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals…  Explosive - perchlorate salts, barium azide, TNT, picric acid/picrate salts  Pyrophoric – activated carbon, aluminum borohydride, magnesium powder  Water reactive-barium, calcium, lithium, sodium  Combustible-phenol, n-propanol, aniline, benzaldehyde

16 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals…  Carcinogen-Acrylonitrile, asbestos, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, lead, PCBs, styrene  Infectious Substance-bacteria, viruses, parasites  Oxidizer-nitric acid, sodium nitrate, silver nitrate, hydrogen peroxide  Radioactive C-14, Kr-74, P-32, U-230

17  National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) chemical hazard diamond:

18  Health (Blue)  4 Danger May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective equipment required  3 Warning Corrosive or toxic. Avoid skin contact or inhalation  2 Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed  1 Caution May be irritating  0 No unusual hazard

19  Flammability (Red)  4 Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid  3 Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100° F  2 Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100° to 200° F  1 Combustible if heated  0 Not combustible

20  Reactivity (Yellow)  4 Danger Explosive material at room temperature  3 Danger May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or mixed with water  2 Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water  1 Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently  0 Stable Not reactive when mixed with water

21  Special Notice Key (White)  WWater Reactive  OxyOxidizing Agent

22 Flashpoint vs. Firepoint  Flashpoint Lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel. Combustion does not continue.  Firepoint The lowest temperature at which a liquid produces sufficient vapor to flash near its surface and continues to burn. Usually 10 to 15 ºC higher than the flashpoint.

23 V. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)  Specified by OSHA and must contain the following information in 16 sections (but it’s not standard). 1. Chemical Product and Company ID 2. Composition/Information on Ingredients A. CAS # B. Relative percents C. Exposure limits (here or in Section 8)

24 MSDS (cont’d) 3. Hazards Identification A. Description of material and overview of hazards B. Potential adverse effects including routes of entry and carcinogenic properties. 4. First Aid Measures

25 MSDS (cont’d) 5. Fire-Fighting Measures A. Flash point—lowest temperature at which vapors and air form an ignitable mixture B. Auto-ignition temperature C. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) D. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) 6. Accidental Release Measures—Spill, leak and response procedures

26 MSDS (Cont’d) 7. Handling and Storage requirements—prevent contact from incompatibles. 8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection (can be listed in Section 2) 9. Physical and Chemical Properties 10. Stability and Reactivity—provides incompatibilities

27 MSDS (Cont’d) 11. Toxicological Information—usually results of animal testing 12. Ecological Information—what happens in the environment 13. Disposal Considerations* 14. Transport Information 15. Regulatory Information 16. Other Information

28 MSDS (Cont’d)  * Section 13 - Disposal Considerations Chemical waste generators must determine whether a discarded chemical is classified as a hazardous waste. US EPA guidelines for the classification determination are listed in 40 CFR Parts Additionally, waste generators must consult state and local hazardous waste regulations to ensure complete and accurate classification. RCRA P-Series: None listed. RCRA U-Series: None listed. potassium permanganate

29 VI. First Aid  More concerned about (rare) serious incidents rather than the more frequent minor ones (cut finger, minor burn to extremity).  Students/Instructors not required to render first aid but knowing some basics can save a life.

30 In the event of an accident:  1. Pause to assess the situation. Consider your own safety.  2. Call (or send) for help. Be specific about the nature and the seriousness of the problem.  3. Monitor situation until help arrives.

31 First Aid Basics  a. Acids and bases are corrosive, damaging to tissue. Treat by flushing with large amounts of water. Eyes must be held open. Do not try to neutralize acid with base, reactions are exothermic.  b. Organic solvents produce sweet smelling vapors. Should always be used in a hood. If you smell vapors and begin to feel lightheaded, close hood and get some fresh air.

32 First Aid Basics  c. Ingestion. Do not induce vomiting. Corrosive materials can do more damage on the way up than on the way down. Give large amounts of water. Solvents can be aspirated. If vomiting occurs keep the person’s head below hips and body on its side to minimize aspiration.  d. Fire Large fire unlikely in Chemistry or Biology lab. Fire in a small container can be put out by smothering..Think ahead, have something available. Clothing on fire—SDR, fire blanket, safety shower

33 First Aid Basics  d. Fire…(cont) Even moderately large fires can produce significant amounts of noxious and toxic gases. In such a case, leave it to the professionals.  e. Electrocution Never touch anyone in contact with live electrical current. Always disconnect power first.

34 VII. Spill, Leak and Disposal Procedures  1. Be prepared  2. Protect yourself  3. Evacuate the immediate area  4. Identify the spilled material  5. Isolate the spill from related hazards  6. Contain the spill  7. Clean up the spill

35 Spills, Leaks…….  8. Dispose of the material  9. Clean yourself up  10. Learn from the experience

36 VIII. Personal Protective Equipment  1. Eye and Face  2. Clothing  3. Gloves  4. Respirators

37 IX. Laboratory Protocol and Techniques  The Four G’s of Lab Protocol 1. General 2. Glassware 3. “Get rid of” or Dispose 4. Gear

38 1. General  Drawers/Doors  Aisles/Floor  Work Surface  Cosmetics/Food  Smoking  Jewelry

39 2. Glassware  Clean/Defect Free  Clutter  Disposal  Washing  Glass Tubing

40 3. Disposal  Containers  Separate Types  Drains  Reactive Chemicals  Ordinary Trash  Contractors

41 4. Gear  Fume Hood  Laser  UV Sources  Compressed Gas  Vacuum Dessicator  Centrifuge  Refrigerator

42 4….Gear…….  X-Ray Generators/Particle Accelerators  Extraction/Distillation  Cooling Methods

43 X.OSHA Regulations  Hazard Communication Standard  Laboratory Standard  HAZWOPER Standard  Blood Borne Pathogens Standard

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45 XI. Environmental Protection Agency  Clean Air Act-1955  Clean Water Act-1972  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-1976  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act-1980  Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act- 1986

46 XII. General Lab Safety Tips  1. Plan ahead. Consider hazards before performing experiments.  2. Know emergency responses. Locations of extinguishers, eyewash, shower, spill kit, telephone.  3. Know what you are working with. MSDS.  4. Know and follow safety procedures. Goggles, protective equipment, special handling, hoods.

47 …..General Lab Safety Tips…..  5. Report dangerous activities or situations.  6. Store and Handle Hazardous Materials Safely  7. If you don’t know…..ask!


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