3 Law Protecting Lab Employees “Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory”Requires:TrainingAppropriate Safety EquipmentMSDS
4 II. What is a Hazardous Chemical? Determined to be cancer-causing, toxic, corrosive, an irritant, a strong sensitizer, flammable, or reactive.Listed under OSHA, 29CFR, part 1910, subpart z.Assigned a threshold limit value by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
5 Routes of Entry Inhalation a. gases/vapors b. particulates Eye Contact Skin Contact/AbsorptionIngestion
6 Types of Exposure Acute Exposure (brief period of time) Chronic Exposure (months, yrs, decades)
7 III. Exposure LimitsSeveral agencies, each with its own set of standards.Most standards are merely recommendations, only OSHA’s ‘PEL’s have the force of law.
8 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit PEL: Allowable limit for air contaminant, repeated exposure without adverse health effects.Ceiling C: Exposure limit not to be exceeded at any time during the workday.Short-Term Exposure Limit STEL: 15 minute time weighted average, not to be exceededTime-Weighted Average TWA: Average airborne exposure in any 8-hour shift of a 40-hour work week, not to be exceeded.Action Level AL: Exposure level at which certain regulations take effect. (analysis, training, medical monitoring, record keeping) Generally ½ the PEL.
9 Exposure Limits--OSHA PEL—Permissible Exposure Limit which may be expressed asTWA—Time weighted Average (8 hr)STEL—Short term exposure limit (15 min)C—Ceiling limit
10 Exposure Limits--ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial HygienistsTLV—Threshold limit value (can be exposed repeatedly at this level)TLV-TWATLV-STELTLV-C
11 Exposure Limits--NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and HealthREL—Recommended exposure limit (40hr work week)IDLH—Immediately Dangerous to Life and HealthToxicity
12 Toxicity--NIOSH LC50—Lethal Concentration 50 (respiratory) Kills 50% of test animals after a single exposure in a specific time.LCLO—Lethal Concentration LowLowest concentration to cause a death in human or animal.LD50—Lethal Dose 50Kills 50% by route other than inhalation
13 Toxicity—NIOSH (cont’d) LDLO—Lethal Dose LowTCLO—Toxic Concentration LowLowest concentration in air to show toxic effects.TDLO—Toxic Dose LowToxic effects evident by route other than inhalation.
14 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals Hazard WarningsFlammable-acetone, ethanol, benzeneCorrosive-ammonia, sodium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid, mineral acidsCompressed gases-Ar, CO2, NH3 anh, N2, LN2Poison-chloroform, cyanide salts, phenol, methyl isocyanate, mercury(II)chloride, carbon tetrachloride
15 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals… Explosive - perchlorate salts, barium azide, TNT, picric acid/picrate saltsPyrophoric – activated carbon, aluminum borohydride, magnesium powderWater reactive-barium, calcium, lithium, sodiumCombustible-phenol, n-propanol, aniline, benzaldehyde
16 IV. Recognizing the Physical and Health Hazards of Chemicals… Carcinogen-Acrylonitrile, asbestos, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, lead, PCBs, styreneInfectious Substance-bacteria, viruses, parasitesOxidizer-nitric acid, sodium nitrate, silver nitrate, hydrogen peroxideRadioactive C-14, Kr-74, P-32, U-230
17 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) chemical hazard diamond:
18 Health (Blue)4 Danger May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective equipment required3 Warning Corrosive or toxic. Avoid skin contact or inhalation2 Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed1 Caution May be irritating0 No unusual hazard
19 Flammability (Red)4 Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid3 Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100° F2 Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100° to 200° F1 Combustible if heated0 Not combustible
20 Reactivity (Yellow)4 Danger Explosive material at room temperature3 Danger May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or mixed with water2 Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water1 Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently0 Stable Not reactive when mixed with water
21 Special Notice Key (White) W Water ReactiveOxy Oxidizing Agent
22 Flashpoint vs. Firepoint Flashpoint Lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel. Combustion does not continue.Firepoint The lowest temperature at which a liquid produces sufficient vapor to flash near its surface and continues to burn. Usually 10 to 15 ºC higher than the flashpoint.
23 V. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Specified by OSHA and must contain the following information in 16 sections (but it’s not standard).1. Chemical Product and Company ID2. Composition/Information on IngredientsA. CAS #B. Relative percentsC. Exposure limits (here or in Section 8)
24 MSDS (cont’d) Hazards Identification First Aid Measures Description of material and overview of hazardsPotential adverse effects including routes of entry and carcinogenic properties.First Aid Measures
25 MSDS (cont’d) Fire-Fighting Measures Flash point—lowest temperature at which vapors and air form an ignitable mixtureAuto-ignition temperatureLower Explosive Limit (LEL)Upper Explosive Limit (UEL)Accidental Release Measures—Spill, leak and response procedures
26 MSDS (Cont’d)Handling and Storage requirements—prevent contact from incompatibles.Exposure Controls/Personal Protection (can be listed in Section 2)Physical and Chemical PropertiesStability and Reactivity—provides incompatibilities
27 MSDS (Cont’d)Toxicological Information—usually results of animal testingEcological Information—what happens in the environmentDisposal Considerations*Transport InformationRegulatory InformationOther Information
28 MSDS (Cont’d) potassium permanganate *Section 13 - Disposal Considerations Chemical waste generators must determine whether a discarded chemical is classified as a hazardous waste. US EPA guidelines for the classification determination are listed in 40 CFR Parts Additionally, waste generators must consult state and local hazardous waste regulations to ensure complete and accurate classification. RCRA P-Series: None listed. RCRA U-Series: None listed.potassium permanganate
29 VI. First AidMore concerned about (rare) serious incidents rather than the more frequent minor ones (cut finger, minor burn to extremity).Students/Instructors not required to render first aid but knowing some basics can save a life.
30 In the event of an accident: 1. Pause to assess the situation. Consider your own safety.2. Call (or send) for help. Be specific about the nature and the seriousness of the problem.3. Monitor situation until help arrives.Don’t rush in…example: if someone is overcome by fumes, rushing to them could cause the same to happen to you. Don’t be ashamed to consider your own safety first. Don’t become the second victim.As instructor you may be the help..in serious cases send a student for additional help, to call for assistance etc. First responders need to know the facts and dispatchers need to know who to send.Be conscious of your own condition to know if the accident has affected you (chem exposure etc…) Use proper protective equipment for any cleanup or assistance redered.
31 First Aid Basics a. Acids and bases are corrosive, damaging to tissue. Treat by flushing with large amounts of water. Eyes must be held open. Do not try to neutralize acid with base, reactions are exothermic.b. Organic solvents produce sweet smelling vapors. Should always be used in a hood. If you smell vapors and begin to feel lightheaded, close hood and get some fresh air.Flush eyes for 15 minutes; know the locations of eyewash stations and safety showers…injured may have to be led to the stationacetone, chloroform, ethers, toluene,….hood could be malfunctioning…
32 First Aid Basics c. Ingestion. Do not induce vomiting. d. Fire Corrosive materials can do more damage on the way up than on the way down. Give large amounts of water.Solvents can be aspirated. If vomiting occurs keep the person’s head below hips and body on its side to minimize aspiration.d. FireLarge fire unlikely in Chemistry or Biology lab. Fire in a small container can be put out by smothering..Think ahead, have something available.Clothing on fire—SDR, fire blanket, safety showerc. Aspirated into lungs..choking, lung damage, chemical pneumonia.THIS IS WHY NO EATING OR DRINKING IN LAB….I almost drank chloroform…
33 First Aid Basics d. Fire…(cont) e. Electrocution Even moderately large fires can produce significant amounts of noxious and toxic gases. In such a case, leave it to the professionals.e. ElectrocutionNever touch anyone in contact with live electrical current. Always disconnect power first.
34 VII. Spill, Leak and Disposal Procedures 1. Be prepared2. Protect yourself3. Evacuate the immediate area4. Identify the spilled material5. Isolate the spill from related hazards6. Contain the spill7. Clean up the spill
35 Spills, Leaks……. 8. Dispose of the material 9. Clean yourself up 10. Learn from the experience
36 VIII. Personal Protective Equipment 1. Eye and Face2. Clothing3. Gloves4. Respirators
37 IX. Laboratory Protocol and Techniques The Four G’s of Lab Protocol1. General2. Glassware3. “Get rid of” or Dispose4. Gear
38 1. General Drawers/Doors Aisles/Floor Work Surface Cosmetics/Food SmokingJewelry
45 XI. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act-1955Clean Water Act-1972Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-1976Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act-1980Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act-1986
46 XII. General Lab Safety Tips 1. Plan ahead. Consider hazards before performing experiments.2. Know emergency responses. Locations of extinguishers, eyewash, shower, spill kit, telephone.3. Know what you are working with. MSDS.4. Know and follow safety procedures. Goggles, protective equipment, special handling, hoods.Hgh bgh
47 …..General Lab Safety Tips….. 5. Report dangerous activities or situations.6. Store and Handle Hazardous Materials Safely7. If you don’t know…..ask!