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U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance: Programs and Activities David A. Tarantino, MD Civil-Military Policy Advisor ASD SO/LIC Stability Operations.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance: Programs and Activities David A. Tarantino, MD Civil-Military Policy Advisor ASD SO/LIC Stability Operations."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance: Programs and Activities David A. Tarantino, MD Civil-Military Policy Advisor ASD SO/LIC Stability Operations |

2 Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)

3 Areas of Responsibility Humanitarian Affairs Office International Humanitarian Assistance Foreign Disaster Relief Overseas Humanitarian Disaster and Civic Aid Funds Humanitarian Demining Landmine Policy Migrant Operations International HIV/AIDS (foreign militaries)

4 Mission Pursue humanitarian-related efforts as a form of defense by other means: Address US security interests globally by supporting CINC cooperation objectives regionally Contribute to peace and stability in at-risk countries Positively impact dire humanitarian situations

5 DoD Role in Humanitarian Affairs Complementary and in support of other USG agencies -- Department of State -- US Agency for International Development Brings unique capabilities to crisis situations -- Logistics -- Forward presence -- Transportation Must protect against excessive or inappropriate demands on DoD assets

6 Humanitarian Assistance and Humanitarian/Civic Assistance

7 Overview of DoD Humanitarian Assistance Involvement of DoD in humanitarian assistance operations is one aspect of the US military role in non- traditional military missions. Humanitarian assistance to areas in need provides access, builds relations, and reflects positively on the US military. Helping to reduce significant suffering and enhance stability in a particular country or region lowers the likelihood US forces will be needed later to salvage a deteriorating internal situation, evacuate US citizens, or protect international organizations.

8 Humanitarian Assistance- A CINC Security Cooperation Tool OSD provides overall guidance for DoD Humanitarian Assistance while the CINCs design and implement programs tailored to each region for purposes of : -- Shaping regional security environments -- Establishing constructive relations in the region -- Preparing for and responding to crises -- Strengthening bilateral military-to-military and military-to-civilian relations

9 Legislative Authorities (Title 10, U.S.Code) Sec Humanitarian assistance (“other humanitarian purposes worldwide”) Sec Non-lethal excess property: humanitarian relief Sec 402. Transportation of humanitarian relief supplies to foreign countries Sec 401. Humanitarian and civic assistance provided in conjunction with military operations

10 Country Teams nominate projects to the CINC CINCs prepare project proposals and submit to OSD OSD staffs proposals within DoD and the interagency Appropriate projects are approved CINCs task units to execute the projects Projects are evaluated Process for HA Engagement Projects

11 Humanitarian Assistance Activities Capacity Building Programs (disaster preparedness focus) Rudimentary Construction Funded Transportation of Donated Relief Supplies: (using US military or commercial assets) Donation of DoD Non-lethal Excess Property Humanitarian Daily Rations

12 Capacity Building Programs Disaster Preparedness/Response -- Disaster preparedness assessments -- Training host nation disaster organizations -- Establishment of regional disaster stockpiles Medical Activities -- Disease and Vector Control -- Medical Deployments

13 Rudimentary Construction Authorized under DoD legal authorities, complies with statute’s definition of “other humanitarian purposes worldwide” Refurbishment or construction of hospitals, clinics, sanitation facilities, water system and schools

14 Funded Transportation of Relief Supplies Conducted under Section 2561 of OHDACA -- Originated in 1980s to provide HA to Afghan resistance -- Expanded to allow transport of cargo for NGOs, IOs, and DoD non-lethal excess property Transportation by most economical means -- Airlift generally used only for items with short shelf-life (pharmaceuticals) or emergency requirement -- Airlifted shipments usually carried out by commercially contracted carriers

15 Non-Lethal Excess Property Non-lethal DoD EP for humanitarian purposes authorized under Section 2557 Property no longer needed by DoD donated to support security/foreign policy goals U.S. Embassy responsible for distributing EP to host government or NGO/IO Defense Logistics Agency provides logistics services, technical support, repair services and parts, assembly/disassembly, and maintenance before transporting EP to ports of embarkation

16 Non-Lethal Excess Property Medical Equipment and Supplies Vehicles Tents Generators Clothing

17 Humanitarian Daily Rations Funded by DoD Humanitarian Appropriation (OHDACA) Short-term needs of refugees, displaced persons, and other needy segments of the population Based on Meal Ready-to-Eat (MRE) concept No animal products, alcohol; requires no cooking or water Single package provides full day’s nutrition (2000 calories) Less costly than MREs (eliminated need to drawdown MREs in emergencies) DoD provides air transport for emergency response

18 HA activities in conjunction with military exercises/ operations Funding - Services Pays for consumables, incremental costs Primary purpose is training for US forces: Medical (MEDCAP, MEDFLAG) Dental Veterinary Engineering (roads, wells, rudimentary buildings) Humanitarian and Civic Assistance

19 Examples: MEDFLAG – Medical cooperation exercises in African nations: Mass casualty exercises/medical training combined with joint treatment of underserved civilians NEW HORIZONS – Exercises in Latin America – promotes mil-mil interaction, combined with joint engineering projects -- construct schools/clinics/wells Humanitarian and Civic Assistance

20 DOD HCA Review FY00 Countries with HCA projects - FY00 Antigua Bangladesh Belize Bolivia Cameroon Colombia Costa Rica Dom. Rep. East Timor Ecuador El Salvador Estonia FYROM Gabon Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Indonesia Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Laos Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Marshall Is. Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Nicaragua Palau Peru Philippines Romania Seychelles Tanzania Thailand Trinidad/Tob. Tunisia

21 Disaster Relief

22 Foreign Disaster Relief Overview US military is not an instrument of first resort in responding to humanitarian crises -- DoD supports civilian relief agencies However, US military may be involved when: -- Disaster exceeds the response capabilities of civilian relief agencies -- There is urgent need for immediate relief -- US military has unique assets to contribute When the US military does become involved: -- The military mission should be clearly defined -- The risks should be minimal -- The involvement should aim at jump-starting civilian relief efforts -- The exit conditions should be clear

23 Trends in Disaster Relief Amount DoD Expended* FY 1997 $0 FY 1998 $8,780,000 FY 1999 $203,563,430 FY 2000 $64,010,000 *Includes OHDACA, Drawdown, & CINC Funds # OF DISASTERS

24 24 DoD Disaster Relief and the Interagency DEPT OF STATE (PRM, POL-MIL IO, REGIONAL) DEPT OF DEFENSE (OSD, JOINT STAFF, CINC) DEPT OF COMMERCE (NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION) DEPT OF AGRICULTURE (FOREST SERVICE) HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES (CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL) DEPT OF TRANSPORTATION (US COAST GUARD) DEPT OF JUSTICE (IMMIGRATION & NATURALIZATION SERVICE) NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL (DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS & HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS) US AGENCY FOR INT’L DEVELOPMENT (OFFICE OF FOREIGN DISASTER ASSISTANCE)

25 Request/Decision Process for DoD Supported Disaster Relief Disaster Request from HN via US Embassy (Country Team) State/AID AID/OFDA* assesses needs/requirements OSD Policy Formal request to DoD via ExecSec The Joint Staff Policy channels directive to plan/execute the mission via DSCA or ExecSec, as appropriate CINC SOLIC staffs recommendation with OSD regional offices, DSCA, GC, Comptroller, JS, others as appropriate 4. Supports response; commits DoS resources; develops request for DoD assistance * may include HAST team.

26 Phases of a Disaster Preparedness & Mitigation Disaster Immediate Response Rapid Assessment Rehabilitation Efforts Reconstruction Continuous Assessment Early Warning

27 Airlift of Relief Supplies Damage Assessments Search and Rescue Ops Evacuations Care for Displaced Civilians Acute Medical Care HDRs for Emergency Needs Specialized Equipment (e.g., water purification units) Disaster Relief Activities

28 US Military Response US military support flows from US commitments agreed to by the host nation and the US Government US military support is short-term stop-gap Focus on immediate relief and emergency operations

29 Emergency Relief Operations Objective is to save lives and stabilize the situation Operations are driven by damage assessments and critical needs Heavy reliance on specialized troops and aviation, both rotary and fixed wing

30 Rehabilitation Operations Focus is on restoring critical infrastructure necessary for transporting relief supplies and restoring medical care Not intended to reconstruct society Heavy reliance on damage assessments

31 Recent DOD Disaster Assistance Vietnam flooding -- airlift of relief supplies Belize (Hurricane Keith) -- helo support El Salvador earthquakes -- helo support, humanitarian excess property, other humanitarian assistance projects India earthquake -- humanitarian excess property, airlift, DOD disaster assessment team (PSAT) Nigeria – assistance with UXO clearance Afghanistan -- humanitarian daily rations, ongoing military civil affairs work Hurricane season on the horizon

32 DoD and Disaster Preparedness Major focus of DoD Humanitarian Assistance Program Promote/assist disaster preparedness, enhancing host nation capacity to respond Promote regional cooperation in disaster preparedness/response Decreases likelihood for DoD response

33 DoD Approach to Disaster Preparedness Regional – Support regional disaster preparedness/response networks (Caribbean, Central America) Bilateral – Country-specific programs

34 Disaster Preparedness/ Regional DoD, with OFDA, plays a lead role in promoting regional disaster organizations --Caribbean (CDERA) --Central America (CEPREDENAC) El Salvador earthquake example DoD provides: impetus, training, conferences, seminars, warehouses Advice/assistance from Federal Emergency Management Administration

35 Disaster Preparedness/ Bilateral Important part of DoD Humanitarian Assistance program Assistance tailored to specific country

36 Disaster Preparedness/ Bilateral Disaster Preparedness Assessments, Training (medical first responder, search and rescue, etc…) Construct/equip national warehouses Construct/train emergency operation centers Conferences/seminars, exercises/simulations Disease outbreak surveillance capabilities

37 United States Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance and Foreign Disaster Response David A. Tarantino, MD Civil-Military Policy Advisor OSD SO/LIC Stability Operations


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