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2001 -- A letter containing anthrax spores is mailed to NBC one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center. It.

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Presentation on theme: "2001 -- A letter containing anthrax spores is mailed to NBC one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center. It."— Presentation transcript:

1 A letter containing anthrax spores is mailed to NBC one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center. It was the first of a number of incidents around the country. In Florida, a man dies after inhaling anthrax at the offices of American Media Inc.

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4 1What is Anthrax?  Anthrax is blamed for several devastating plagues that killed both humans and livestock. Soon after scientists learned more about it in the late 1800s, it emerged in World War I as a biological weapon.

5 1. What is anthrax?  Morphology Morphology -----observation under microscope  Culture Culture observation of colonies

6 Morphology -----Observation under microscope  1-1.2um in width 3-5 um in length  Gram positive  Sporeforming rod  Squared ends  Endospore: ellipsoidal shaped centrally

7 Squared ends Morphology -----Observation under microscope Morphology -----Observation under microscope Endospore (resistant to staining)

8 Culture ----Observation of colonies  aerobic Optimal condition: 37 C PH:  Blood plate  Common plate  Nutrient broth

9 Observation of colonies  Diameter:2-4mm  Colour:grayishwhite  Rough colony : irregular, curving outgrowths from the margin. Colony of anthrax

10 Observation of colony Enhance production of poly -D-glutamyl capsule Incresed CO2 tension to 5% Mucoid colony type(thick capsule)

11  Pathogenicity of B.Anthracis Pathogenicity of B.Anthracis  Disease Disease

12 Pathogenicity of B.Anthracis Poly-D-glutamyl capsule Poly-D-glutamyl capsule important important Anthrax toxin Anthrax toxin Polysaccharide of bacterium Antigen of spore

13 Poly-D-glutamyl capsule All virulent strains of B.Anthracis form this capsule anti-phagocytosis capsule

14 Anthrax Toxin Consist of 3 components :  EF(edema factor) A fragment  LF(lethal factor) (toxicity)  PA(protective antigen) B fragment (non-toxicity,binding receptor)

15 Anthrax Toxin  There are 3 active combing forms: EF+PA LF+PA EF+LF+PA EF+LF inactive

16 Disease multiply at the site of the lesion get into the circulation systemic pathology

17  Cutaneous anthrax :Less lethal forms include cutaneous infections, which occur if anthrax spores come in contact with a cut or other opening in the skin  Pulmonary anthrax: If inhaled, anthrax spores can germinate and lead to infection within one to 60 days. This is pulmonary anthrax, which usually causes death.  Gastrointestinal anthrax :Another form of anthrax develops in the intestine of those who eat improperly cooked meat of animals that have been infected with anthrax

18 Cutaneous Anthrax

19 Epilogue  Naturally seldom get Anthrax from animals  No chance from person to person transmation  Treatment : antibiotics eg.penicillin

20 Anthrax as a biological weapon? Use your knowledge to conquer the disease,but not to destroy our life !

21 制作人员  刘雯敏 高敏 赵世春 李晓川 程超 李艳霞  曹昱琨 姜宁 李鹏 李山峰 聂磊

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24  PA+EF edema  EF: inherent adenylate cyclase  suceptic  EF+PA

25  PA+LF lethal activity LF:Zn dependent protease that can include cytokine production in macrophage and lymphocyte MAPKK mitogen-activated protein kinase disrupt cellular signal

26  PA+LF+EF edema,necrosis,lethal  Both the function of PA+EF and PA+LF  Others to neutrophil:  EF+LF engulfment of bacteria susceptibility to infection

27 Skin anthrax  Less lethal forms include cutaneous infections, which occur if anthrax spores come in contact with a cut or other opening in the skin

28 Pulmonary anthrax  If inhaled, anthrax spores can germinate and lead to infection within one to 60 days. This is pulmonary anthrax, which usually causes death. 肺炭疽胸片

29 intestinal anthrax  Another form of anthrax develops in the intestine of those who eat improperly cooked meat of animals that have been infected with anthrax

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31  Robert Koch confirms bacterial origin of anthrax  First successful immunization of livestock against anthrax.  German agents in the United States believed to have injected horses, mules, and cattle with anthrax on their way to Europe during World War I  Japan starts biological warfare program in Manchuria, including tests involving anthrax  United Kingdom experiments with anthrax at Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland. It was only recently decontaminated.  United States begins developing anthrax weapons  Anthrax outbreak in Iran kills 1 million sheep


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