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Toxins Unit Investigation I: Dissolving Toxins Lesson 1: Lethal Dose Lesson 2: Bearly Alive Lesson 3: Mixing It Up! Lesson 4: Weighing In Lesson 5: Finding Solutions Lesson 6: Holey Moley Lesson 7: Is It Toxic?

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 1: Lethal Dose

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst Which substance do you think is most toxic to you – alcohol (ethanol, C 2 H 6 O), aspirin (salicylic acid, C 7 H 6 O 3 ), or arsenic (As)? Explain your thinking. How do you think toxicity is determined?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question How is the toxicity of a substance measured and described?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Calculate the toxicity of substances based on the lethal dose.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Lethal dose (LD 50 ) is the amount of an ingested substance that kills 50 percent of a test sample. It is expressed in mg/kg, or milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight. Notes

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: In this activity you will compare the toxicity of various substances.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense How is dosage related to toxicity?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In Methadone is a medication used as a painkiller and as a treatment for those recovering from heroin addiction. The LD 50 for methadone is 95 mg/kg. Would you consider methadone to be more or less toxic than acetaminophen (LD 50 = 2404 mg/kg) or aspirin (LD 50 = 200 mg/kg)? Explain how you would calculate the amount of this substance that would be lethal to a 120-pound human.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up Toxicity is relative to dosage: The toxicity (or therapeutic effect) of a substance depends on the dose in which it is received. The lethal dose (or therapeutic dose) of a substance is often expressed as a ratio between a certain mass of the substance and one kilogram of the body weight of an organism exposed to the substance.

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 2: Bearly Alive

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst Drinking water in our homes contains low concentrations of dissolved chlorine, a highly toxic substance. Why can we drink the water? What do you think concentration means?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question What are the components of solutions, and how are the concentrations of solutions described?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Identify the components of solutions and explain their relationship to the concept of solution concentration.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that is uniform throughout. The substance in the greatest amount is called the solvent. The solute is dissolved in the solvent. Concentration is the amount of solute for a specified amount of solvent. A common measure of concentration is moles per L, moles/L, which is referred to as molarity, M. Notes

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: This activity introduces you to solution chemistry and allows you to examine solutions of differing concentrations. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Solution Solute ObservationsRank the bear size from 1-8 Water— 0.1 M sugarC 12 H 22 O M sugarC 12 H 22 O M sugarC 12 H 22 O 11 Corn syrupC 12 H 22 O M saltNaCl 0.5 M saltNaCl 1.0 M saltNaCl

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense What do you think is happening in this activity? Write a paragraph explaining your ideas. Include your answers to the following questions: What causes the size of the gummy bears to change? Why are the gummy bears in the sugar solutions ranked the way they are? (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Why are the gummy bears in the salt solutions different sizes than the gummy bears in the sugar solutions of the same concentration? (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called diffusion. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In What would happen if you placed a gummy bear in a 1.5 M sugar solution overnight? Use your data table to help you determine the outcome. Draw a picture showing which molecules are moving. Explain your answer in terms of diffusion of water into or out of the bear.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up A solution is a mixture that is uniform throughout. The substance in the greatest amount is the solvent. The substance that is dissolved is the solute. Molarity tells us how many particles or molecules are in solution. Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Diffusion is defined as the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration of that molecule to an area of lower concentration of that molecule. Salts dissolve in water to give two (or more) ions. Molecular substances do not dissociate; they remain intact as individual molecules. (cont.)

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 3: Mixing It Up!

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst List three things that dissolve in water. List three things that do not dissolve in water.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question What is solubility, and how is it determined?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Explain the concept of solubility and determine the solubility of a substance.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Homogeneous: A mixture in which the substances are distributed uniformly. All solutions are homogeneous by definition. Heterogeneous: A mixture that is not uniform throughout. Notes

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: In this activity you will examine the solubility of five solutes in water. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Test tube Soluteafter Step 1after Step 2 #1ethanol C 2 H 6 O (l) #2butanol C 4 H 10 O (l) #3oil C 20 H 42 (l) #4copper sulfate CuSO 4 (s) #5carbon dioxide CO 2 (g)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Dye molecules View 1: Uniform distribution of molecules View 2: More molecules at the bottom (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense Explain how you can tell when a substance is soluble or insoluble in water.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X A solute is a gas, liquid, or solid that dissolves when mixed with another substance. A solvent is the substance present in the greatest quantity in a solution. Solvents are usually liquids. Notes (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Soluble substances are solutes that dissolve completely. Insoluble substances are those that do not dissolve at all. Partially soluble substances are those for which only a certain amount will dissolve. Many substances are partially soluble. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In There is solid sugar at the bottom of your tea. Why do the last sips taste sweeter? All of the sugar in your tea is dissolved. The last sips taste the same as the first. Use a molecular view of sugar dissolved in water to explain why.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up Gases, liquids, and solids can dissolve in water. However, some substances are not soluble. Partially soluble means that when two substances are mixed, a solution forms but one substance is leftover. Solutions are homogeneous. The molecules or ions of the solute are distributed uniformly between the solvent molecules.

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 4: Weighing In

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst Which do you think is more toxic—one mole of arsenic, As, or ten grams of arsenic? Explain your reasoning.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question How is the mole concept used to connect the mass of a sample to the number of particles it contains?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Use the molar mass of a substance to find the number of molecules in a sample.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: The purpose of today's lesson is to explore the relationship between mass and moles. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X RiceLentils Volume of each Mass of the baggie Mass of ten pieces Mass of one piece (calculated) # of pieces (calculated) # of pieces (counted) (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X substance# of particles# of molesmeasured mass He (g) 6.02 mole He (g) moles8.0 g Al (s)1 mole27.0 g Cu (s) 6.02 mole As (s) 6.02 mole NaCl (s) 6.02 mole MgF 2 (s) 31.2 g MgF 2 (s) 6.02 mole62.3 g H 2 O (l) 3.01 H 2 O (l) 6.02 mole C 6 H 12 O mole (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense How is measuring the mass of a substance the same as counting?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The molar mass of a substance is how much one mole of that substance weighs. Molar mass is the sum of all of the atomic masses (in grams) in a chemical formula. Notes (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X molar mass in grams/mole add the atomic weights of the atoms in the chemical formula mass in grams weight of the substance moles 6.02 (Avogadro’s number) of each of the atoms in the chemical formula (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In You have one mole of NaCl and one mole of KCl. Which one weighs more? Explain your thinking.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up The atomic weight on the periodic table is equivalent to the mass of 1 mole of atoms of the element in grams. The molar mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in the compound. Molar mass allows you to convert between moles and grams.

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 5: Finding Solutions

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst Consider the following solutions: 1.0 L 1.0 M C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) 500 mL 1.0 M C 12 H 22 O 11 (sucrose) 1.0 L 1.0 M C 12 H 22 O 11 (sucrose) (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Which solution has the most molecules? Explain. Which solution has the greatest concentration? Explain. Which solution weighs the most? Explain. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question What are the methods that can be used to produce a solution of a specific concentration?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Produce a solution of specific concentration by using the mass of solute and its molar mass or by using dilution.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: You will prepare four solutions by two different methods. Volume conversion: 1 L = 1000 mL (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X massmolesvolumemolarity 342 g1.0 mole1.0 L1.0 M 34.2 g1.0 L0.10 M 3.42 g0.010 moles100 mL g0.010 M (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X volumemolaritymolesdilute to new molarity 100 mL1.0 M0.10 moles1.0 L0.10 M 100 mL0.10 M0.010 moles1.0 L 10 mL0.10 M moles100 mL 10 mL0.010 M100 mL (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Method of preparation ConcentrationColor Solution Aweighed 3.42 g sugar, diluted to 100 mL 0.10 Mdark red Solution B Solution C Solution D (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense Describe two ways to make a M sugar solution.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In How many moles of sucrose does 100 mL of a 0.10 M sucrose solution contain? How many moles of sucrose does 25 mL of a 0.10 M sucrose solution contain?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up When concentration is expressed in moles of solute per liter of solution it is referred to as molarity. Solutions of specific concentrations can be created by weighing out the solute or by dilution of an existing solution of known concentration.

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 6: Holey Moley

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst How would you calculate the total amount of glucose, in grams, in the blood of an average human? Useful information: Blood volume = 5.5 L Glucose concentration = M Molar mass of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) = 180 g/mol

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question What is the connection between the mass of a solute, its molar mass, and the concentration of solution it is in?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Convert between the mass of solute in solution, its concentration, and its molar mass.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Proportional analysis Step 1: Convert liters to moles using the concentration. x = moles glucose Notes (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Step 2: Convert moles to grams using the molar mass y = 5.5 g glucose Notes (cont.) (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Dimensional analysis Notes (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: You will practice solving problems in which you convert between mass of solute, moles of solute, and liters of solution using molecular weight and molarity. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X massmolesvolumemolarity 342 g1.0 mole1.0 L 34.2 g1.0 L0.10 M 3.42 g100 mL g0.10 M 27.4 g0.080 moles1.0 L0.080 M 17.1 g1.0 L0.050 M 6.84 g1.0 L 27.4 g0.080 moles500 mL0.040 M 17.1 g0.050 moles0.025 M 500 mL0.010 M

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X 0.1 M sucrose0.01 M sucrose0.05 M sucrose (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X volumemolaritymolesdilute tonew molarity 1.0 L1.0 M1.0 moles10.0 L0.10 M 1.0 L0.10 M10.0 L 500 mL1.0 M1.0 L 250 mL1.0 M1.0 L 500 mL0.10 M1.0 L 250 mL0.10 M1.0 L 500 mL0.20 M5.0 L 250 mL0.20 M5.0 L

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense Explain how to make a glucose solution that has the same concentration as blood. Explain how to dilute a 1.0 M glucose solution so that it has the same concentration as human blood. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Sample Problem #1 – Calculating molarity of a solution: What is the molarity of 5.5 L of blood containing 10 grams of glucose? (cont.) Sample Problems Involving Molarity

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Sample Problem #2 – Calculating grams of solute needed for a specific molarity. How many grams of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, would you need to create 250 mL of solution with a molarity of moles / liter? (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X When a solution is diluted, solvent is added without the addition of more solute. Since the amount of solute is not changed, our calculations reflect this fact. # of moles before dilution = # of moles after dilution Since the moles of solute is equal to the molarity multiplied by the volume, we can substitute these values into the equation. M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Sample Problem #1 – Calculate the volume of a known solution needed to dilute to a new molarity. What volume of 0.75 M glucose is needed to make 1 liter of 0.15 M glucose? (cont.) Preparation of Solutions by Dilution

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In How many grams of glucose would you need to make 100 mL of 1.0 M solution? The molecular formula of glucose is C 6 H 12 O 6.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up Mass of solute, moles of solute, and volume of solution are related to one another by the molecular weight of the solute and the concentration of the solution. If you have a certain volume of a solution of a specified concentration, then you know how many moles of solute you have.

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Toxins Unit – Investigation I Lesson 7: Is It Toxic?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X ChemCatalyst Suppose you wanted to determine if your tap water contained lead sulfate, PbSO 4 (which is toxic). Do you expect the weight of 100 ml of pure water to be the same as that of a 100 ml solution containing PbSO 4 ? Explain your reasoning.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X The Big Question What does the mass of a solution reveal about the concentration and the molar mass of its solute?

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X You will be able to: Deduce some differences among solutions that look identical.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Activity Purpose: You will determine the identities of solutions given to you by your instructor, and decide which is safe to drink. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Safety note: Do not get NaOH on your skin. In case of a spill, rinse with large amounts of water. Wear goggles. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Making Sense Examine the toxicities given below. Which solution would be most harmful if you drank it? Which would be least harmful to drink? Explain your thinking. (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Salt Molar mass Mass of 1.0 moles salts Approximate mass of 50 mL KCl74.55 g NaBr g102.9 g NaOH40.00 g (cont.)

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Check-In Place the following 1.0 M solutions in order of increasing mass, from the smallest mass to the largest mass: NaCl, KCl, and CaCl 2.

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© 2004 Key Curriculum Press. Unit IV Investigation I-X Wrap-Up Solutions have different masses depending on the molar mass of the solute. Pure water weighs exactly 1.0 g per 1.0 mL. If 1.0 mL weighs more or less than this, then the water is not pure.

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