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Drugs. Vocabulary Serotonin = Feel good brain hormone, happiness Dopamine = Reward (pleasure) brain hormone Norepinephrine = Stress hormone for increased.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs. Vocabulary Serotonin = Feel good brain hormone, happiness Dopamine = Reward (pleasure) brain hormone Norepinephrine = Stress hormone for increased."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs

2 Vocabulary Serotonin = Feel good brain hormone, happiness Dopamine = Reward (pleasure) brain hormone Norepinephrine = Stress hormone for increased concentration and fight or flight, increases blood pressure Adrenaline = Hormone that stimulates heart Lethal Dose = LD50 The dose at which 50% of the mice tested died Half Life = How long it takes for the body to get rid of half of the drug

3 Drugs given to kids

4 Ibuprofen (Advil) Administered: Pill by mouth Effects: In approximately 20 min Half Life in body: 4-6 hours Physiology: Blocks enzymes in blood Positive side effects: Reduces swelling (inflammation) and blood clotting, pain relief Negative side effects: Nausea, bleeding in the digestive system and heart attacks (high dose or long term use)

5 Lethal Dose: 636 mg/kg or mg Typical Pill is mg (almost 6,000 pills) Addiction: Minimal if any Medicinal uses: Reduces swelling Other: May help with acne

6 Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Administered: Pill by mouth Effects: Relieves pain in 10-60min Half-Life in Body: 2-4 hours Physiology: Blocks receptors on neurons Positive side effects: Relieves pain and reduces fever Negative side effects: Liver damage

7 Lethal Dose: ~1000 mg/kg Typical pill is 1000 mg (about 68 pills) Addiction: Psychological Medicinal uses: Pain & fever Other: Many drugs combine Acetaminophen with other substances (Excedrin, Tylenol PM, etc.)

8 Caffeine Administered: Eaten or drunk Effects in: 15 minutes Half-Life in Body: 4-6 hours Physiology: Smooth muscle relaxer Positive side effects: Feeling of alertness (increase in oxygen to the brain) Negative side effects: Racing heart, shaking, poor sleep, brain loses ability to regulate its oxygen (headaches and poor coordination), dehydration (increase in urine production)

9 Lethal Dose: 10 grams (80 cups of coffee) Addiction: Physical and mental Medicinal uses: Migraines, short term compensation for sleep Fun Link: Other: Added to amphetamines, LSD, cocaine and heroin to augment their psychoactive effects.

10 Ritalin (Methylphenidate) Administered: Pill by mouth Effects: within an hour Half-Life in Body: hours Often pills will release slowly over time Physiology: increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine Positive side effects: Increased wakefulness and ability to focus Negative side effects: Trouble sleeping, irritable, dry mouth, dizziness/nausea

11 Lethal Dose: ~190 mg/kg Typical pill is 90 mg (about 140 pills) Addiction: Physical and mental Medicinal uses: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Narcolepsy Fun Video: Other: Milder but similar to cocaine and meth (has been used to help addicts)

12 Reflection: What is the most common drug (in this category) have you taken? Why have you taken it?

13 Misused legal substances

14 Nitrous Oxide (Whip Its, laughing gas) Administered: Inhaled Effects in: A few seconds Half-Life in Body: 5 minutes Physiology: Deprives brain of oxygen, releases dopamine in the brain, blocks some receptors in brain Positive side effects: Laughter, euphoria, mild pain relief Negative side effects: Slowed brain function, loss of consciousness, brain damage (NOTE: Just as helium makes the voice sound high, N 2 O makes it sound low)

15 Lethal Dose: Difficult to determine, but the brain will suffer permanent damage if it does not get enough oxygen for as short as a few minutes Addiction: Possible Medicinal uses: Used as tranquilizer for dental procedures Videos:

16 Volatile Inhalants Administered: Breathed in Effects in: A few seconds Half-Life in Body: 72 hours (varies) Physiology: Varies, disrupts transmitters & channels in the body Positive side effects: Alcohol-like intoxication, euphoria, hallucinations Negative side effects: Hypoxia (lack of oxygen to brain, lightheadedness, brain cell death), pneumonia (liquid in lungs), cardiac failure, or aspiration of vomit


18 Lethal Dose: Depends on substance and how it’s administered Addiction: Mental (behavior/habit) Medicinal uses: None… What, are you crazy!? Other: WTF?!? Toluene (spray paints, rubber cement, gasoline) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (dry-cleaning chemicals, correction fluids) Hexane (glues, gasoline) Benzene (gasoline) Methylene chloride (varnish removers, paint thinners) Butane (cigarette lighter refills, air fresheners) Nitrous oxide (whipped cream dispensers, gas cylinders) Ketones (nail polish remover)

19 Anabolic Steroids Administered: Pills, injected, skin patch Half-Life in Body: A few days Physiology: Mimic male testosterone Positive side effects: Increased muscle building and sex drive Negative side effects: Increased hair growth (male pattern), deepening voice, reduced production of sex hormones by the body, liver damage, aggression/violence, psychosis

20 Lethal Dose: Unclear, but it’s really hard to do Addiction: Physical and mental (possible suicide) Medicinal uses: Growth in children and bone marrow growth





25 Salvia divinorum Administered: Eaten or smoked Effects in: 2 to 20 min Half-Life in Body: (Effects last about 30 min) Physiology: Interacts with receptors in the brain Positive side effects: Extreme hallucinations, melding with other objects (“one with the universe”) Negative side effects: Extreme hallucinations (distressful or anxiety producing), dangerously unaware of surroundings

26 Lethal Dose: Not known (no reported cases) Addiction: Unlikely, but unknown Medicinal uses: Possible drug therapy addiction, possible treatment for Alzheimer's, depression, schizophrenia, chronic pain and even AIDS or HIV Videos: and (blocked)

27 DXM (active ingredient in Nyquil) Administered: Drunk, swallowed Effects in: Approximately minutes Half-Life in Body: hours Physiology: Interacts with serotonin receptors Positive side effects: Alcohol-like intoxication, euphoria, hallucinations Negative side effects: Hallucinations, decreased thinking, slowed breathing, opiod-like addiction

28 Lethal Dose: 70 times the small dose taken for cough medicine… moderate risk for people who drink it! Lethal dose around 50 mg/kg, some people take mg/kg Addiction: Possible Medicinal uses: Suppresses cough, mild pain relief Caution: Compounds in grapefruit juice interact with this compound with toxic effects Videos:

29 Pentobarbital (Vallium, Xantax, sleeping pills) Sedative Effects similar to Rohypol, GHB, Ketamine and PCP Usually much lower doses (10 times less strong) GHB Video:

30 Reflection: Many of the drugs in this category are accessible, but this doesn’t mean they are “safe.” Why not?

31 Somewhat Controlled Drugs

32 Nicotine (Tobacco) Administered: Cigarettes, “Clove” cigarettes, chewing tobacco, gum Effects: 7 seconds to reach brain Half-Life in Body: 2 hours Physiology: Releases sugar from liver, affects hormones (including serotonin, dopamine, nonepinephrine and adrenaline) Positive side effects: Relaxation, sharpness, calmness, alertness, decreases appetite while increasing how quickly food is burned Negative side effects: Cancer, increased cholesterol, heart attacks, birth defects or premature births

33 Lethal Dose: mg (adult) Average cigarette gives 1-3 mg (10 pieces of 4mg nicotine gum) Addiction: Intense physical and mental Uses: Insecticide Other: Makes you smell bad and give you yellow teeth… second hand smoke is very bad

34 Death (Overdose)  Addiction 

35 Alcohol (Ethanol) Administered: Drunk Effects: Depends on food (15+ minutes) Lasts: Peaks 45 min Physiology: Decreases nervous system and relaxes blood vessels (dilate/expand) Positive side effects: Decreased heart attacks, low inhibitions Negative side effects: Regretful activities, poor coordination, sexual dysfunction, dementia and memory loss, vomiting, liver damage, cannot absorb nutrients in food, headache

36 Lethal Dose: Blood Alcohol Content 0.45 Intoxication at 0.08 (death in only 5 times intoxication) “Drunk Driving” at 0.08 License suspended for “Driving Under the Influence” at any BAC! Addiction: Physical and mental Medicinal uses: Primitive anesthetic, brings blood to the surface of the skin Other: In Latin, crapula refers to intoxication and hangover Drunk Monkeys:

37 Progressive Effects of Alcohol BAC (%)BehaviorImpairment 0.01–0.029 Average individual appears normal Subtle effects that can be detected with special tests 0.03–0.059 Mild euphoria, sense of well-being Relaxation Joyousness Talkativeness Decreased inhibition Alertness Judgment Coordination Concentration 0.06–0.10 Blunted Feelings Lack of inhibition Extroversion Lowered Libido Reasoning Depth Perception Peripheral Vision Glare Recovery 0.11–0.20 Over-Expression Emotional Swings Angriness or Sadness Boisterousness Reflexes Reaction Time and gross Motor Control Staggering Slurred Speech 0.21–0.29 Stupor Loss of Understanding Impaired Sensations Severe Motor Impairment Loss of Consciousness Memory Blackout 0.30–0.39 Severe Central Nervous System Depression Unconsciousness Death Possible Bladder Function Breathing Heart Rate >0.40 General lack of behavior Unconsciousness Death Breathing Heart Rate Life

38 Standard Drink Chart (US) Alcohol Amount in ml Amount in fl. oz. Serving size Alcohol % by vol. Alcohol in fl. oz. 80 proof liquor44 ml1.5 fl. shot400.6 fl. oz. beer355 ml12 fl. can50.6 fl. oz. table wine148 ml5 fl. glass120.6 fl. oz.

39 Death (Overdose)  Addiction 

40 Male Female Approximate Blood Alcohol Percentage (US) One drink has 0.5 fl. oz. alcohol by volume Drinks Body Weight 90 lb100 lb120 lb140 lb160 lb180 lb200 lb220 lb240 lb 1 – – – – – – – – – – Subtract approximately.01 every 40 minutes after drinking. Men have a higher percent of water in their bodies (58%) than women (49%)

41 Pain Killers (Morphine, Oxycontin, Codine, Vicodin) Administered: Orally, injection Effects: 10 minutes to 1 hour Half-Life in Body: hours Physiology: Disrupts receptors in brain Positive side effects: Pain relief, euphoria Negative side effects: Dizziness, nausea, enlarged prostate (impotence), coldness, shallow breathing, seizures

42 Lethal Dose: 800 mg for an adult Doses often between 20-80mg (about 10 pills to OD) Tylenol 3, prescription cough medicine and other drugs have codeine (30+mg) in them Addiction: Physical and mental (strongly addictive) Intense withdrawal symptoms Medicinal uses: Pain relief Sad story: Another story: (until 3:40, and then it is detox)

43 Ketamine (Special K) Administered: Smoked, snorted, swallowed, injected Effects in: (Depends on method administered) Effects last 60 min to 2 hours Half-Life in Body: hours Physiology: Interacts with brain receptors Positive side effects: Keeps lungs opens, sedation, in very low doses may help cure depression Negative side effects: analgesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, laxative

44 Lethal Dose: Overdose blood range of 3–20 mg/L Recreational blood range is ½ to 5 mg/L Addiction: Mental Medicinal uses: Used as a sedative for humans since it was safer than PCP, not used much anymore but still used for animals/veterinary practice Videos:

45 Reflection: All of these drugs are legal, but all have serious negative effects. Write a statement about one of these drugs and its potential dangers.

46 Illegal (in Most States)

47 Marijuana (THC, MaryJane, weed) Administered: Smoked, eaten, drunk Effects in: 1 to 10 minutes Half-Life in Body: 1.3 days Physiology: Stimulates brain neurotransmitters Positive side effects: Increased appetite, relaxation, euphoria, altered space-time perception and senses (visual, auditory, etc.) Negative side effects: Short term memory loss (may be ‘permanent’ if done young), lack of motivation, sleepiness, paranoia, anxiety, fatigue, dry eyes and mouth

48 Lethal Dose: times effective dose Addiction: Mental Medicinal uses (in adults whose brains have stopped growing/changing): AIDS, cancer and chronic pain patients Other: Used in 1940s to get enemies talking and to tell the truth (spilling their secrets) Video:

49 K2 (artificial marijuana, Spice) Administered: Usually smoked Effects in: Likely 1-10 min Half-Life in Body: New drug, studies not done Physiology: Stimulates brain neurotransmitters Positive side effects: Relaxation, euphoria, altered space- time perception and senses (visual, auditory, etc.) Negative side effects: Psychosis, paranoia, anxiety, fatigue, seizures, delusions, blurry vision, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, loss of consciousness … seems to be stronger and have more negative effects than marijuana

50 Lethal Dose: Unknown, likely very difficult to do Addiction: Evidence it is addictive (unlike Marijuana) Uses: Marked as an herbal incense Other: First made/sold in 2004, many of the herbs listed are not present when chemical tests are done; illegal in some states Videos:

51 Psilocybin (Mushrooms) Administered: Eaten Effects in: min Half-Life in Body: 3-8 hours Physiology: Similar to serotonin, interacts with several organic compounds Positive side effects: Hallucinations (imagined and enhanced colors/shapes), altered perception of time Negative side effects: Frightening/upsetting hallucinations, stomach ache, schizophrenia-like psychosis

52 Lethal Dose: 280 mg/kg A typical recreational dosage is 10–50 mg Mushrooms vary greatly so dosage is difficult to determine! Addiction: None recorded Medicinal uses: Transcendence, mediation Other: There are 116 species of mushrooms that contain this compound. There are many others mushrooms that look similar and are deadly. Mushroom & Reindeer: mushrooms-and-reindeer.htm mushrooms-and-reindeer.htm

53 LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide, Acid) Administered: Orally (usually on a substance), injection Effects: Nearly instant (if injected) Half-Life in Body: 4-6 hours Physiology: Similar to serotonin, interacts with several organic compounds Positive side effects: Altered thinking, time and sensory distortions Negative side effects: Panic attacks, “flashbacks,” fluctuations in body temperature

54 Lethal Dose: 200 µg/kg or 135 mg for an adult Typical dose:100 and 500 µg (about 25 “hits” at once) Addiction: Possible mental addiction Medicinal uses: Possible psychiatric use, alcohol addiction, pain relief Other: Rapid tolerance build-up Bad Acid Trip:

55 MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Ecstasy) Administered: Pill (usually by mouth) Effects: Enters blood in 30 min Half-Life in Body: 8 hours (affects for 3-6 hours) Physiology: Stimulates serotonin and dopamine receptors in the brain (oxytocin & vasopressin – bonding hormones) Positive side effects: euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, reduced anxiety and depression Negative side effects: Brain slows serotonin production (depression), panic attacks, stroke or seizures, overheating, overhydration, regretted activities (STDs/pregnancy), aches & pains, lack of focus

56 Lethal Dose: 300 mg/kg Typical pill is 125 mg (about 35 pills) Strong risk of death from overheating or overhydration (often from additives) at MUCH lower doses!!! Most “Ecstasy” pills actually have caffeine, meth, PMA or 4-MTA, or other additives that make them much more dangerous Addiction: Psychological (low serotonin in brain) Medicinal uses: Low doses may be helpful for PTSD or anxiety disorders Video:

57 Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam, Roofie) Administered: Usually ingested Effects in: min, lasting many hours Half-Life in Body: hours (with effects lasting 36– 200 hours) Physiology: Blocks channels in the brain Positive side effects: Sleepiness, muscle relaxation, reduces anxiety, prevents convulsions Negative side effects: Hypnotic, powerful sedative, rape

58 Lethal Dose: Highly variable when used with alcohol Pills are 1-2mg May this dose may be fatal when used with alcohol (or other depressants like heroin) Addiction: Physical & mental Medicinal uses: Short-term cure for insomnia Other: Has been used to “soften” the crash from stimulants; lack of memory makes rape cases harder to resolve/prosecute Video: (Imagine if MaryAnn had been alone… without someone watching out for her)

59 Methamphetamine Administered: By mouth, injection Effects: Nearly instant (if injected) Half-Life in Body: 9-15 hours Physiology: increasing levels of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain Positive side effects: Alertness, concentration, euphoria, pleasure Negative side effects: Complete loss of appetite, lack of sleep, tremors, itchy dry skin, numbness, dry mouth (tooth loss), obsessive/repetitive behaviors, heart malfunctions, stroke

60 Lethal Dose: 73 mg/kg or 39.6 grams Often taken with caffeine or other drugs that make it more dangerous Addiction: Physical and mental (strong) Medicinal uses: Short term use for some obesity and ADHD Other: Serious health and appearance problems can be caused by unsterilized needles, lack or ignoring of hygiene needs (more typical on chronic use), and obsessive skin-picking, which may lead to abscesses. Scary Video:

61 Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine, including Crack) Administered: Smoked (low quality), snorted, injected, rubbed onto gums, swallowed Effects in: Instant to 30 min Half-Life in Body: 45min - 1 hour Physiology: Keeps high levels of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain, constricts blood vessels Positive side effects: alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, energy, feelings of competence and sexuality Negative side effects: Anxiety, paranoia and restlessness, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature

62 Lethal Dose: Difficult to determine (about 1.2g) Typical dose is 0.05g and 0.2g Addiction: Mental (depression) Medicinal uses: Used to be a local anesthetic for eye and nose surgery, tea used for altitude sickness Video:

63 Heroin (diacetylmorphine, Morphine is the same drug) Administered: Snorted, smoked, injected Effects in: 6 seconds to 30 minutes Half-Life in Body: 10 minutes Physiology: Becomes morphine, disrupts receptors in the brain Positive side effects: Euphoria Negative side effects: Poisoning, constipation, slowed breathing, muscle weakness, liver damage, fluid in lungs

64 Lethal Dose: 1.5g for an adult Typical dose is g Addiction: Strong physical and mental addiction Medicinal uses: Pain killer, cough suppressant Depressing Videos: (a parody: )

65 Death (Overdose)  Addiction 

66 PCP (phenylcyclohexylpiperidine, angel dust) Administered: Eaten, smoked, snorted Effects in: (Depends on method administered) Half-Life in Body: 7–46 hours Physiology: Affects dopamine and other brain receptors, stored in fat Positive side effects: Numbness, euphoria, out of body experiences Negative side effects: Slows systems, hallucinations, self- mutilation (pulling teeth, breaking bones), delusions, paranoia, distorted thinking (schizophrenia), brain damage

67 Lethal Dose: Huge variation from study to study, but overdose is a definite possibility 5–10 mg snorted, or 0.01–0.02 mg/kg injected as an anesthetic Addiction: Mental Other uses: Was used as an anesthetic in the s Videos:

68 Other GHB = Intoxicant and date rape drug (sometimes called G) Mescaline = Peyote cactus, hallucinations 2C = sometimes sold as mescaline (10x stronger), stimulant with hallucinations, some MDMA-like effect Lithium carbonate Others?... Drug song: Endorphins, Natural Morphine:

69 Reflection: These are illegal but differ greatly in terms of risk. Write a sentence reflecting on what you have learned.


71 Mini-Skit Accurate facts to match # of people About drugs Anything from this class Fifteen minutes to plan YOU MUST SPEAK CLEARLY! NO advocating for the use of drugs!

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