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1 MH-8:Making War More Lethal. 2 New Technologies, Institutions, & Ideas Strategic Overview Late 19th Century – New Imperialism in West grows: –Scramble.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MH-8:Making War More Lethal. 2 New Technologies, Institutions, & Ideas Strategic Overview Late 19th Century – New Imperialism in West grows: –Scramble."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MH-8:Making War More Lethal

2 2 New Technologies, Institutions, & Ideas Strategic Overview Late 19th Century – New Imperialism in West grows: –Scramble for Empire – Africa, Asia, LATAM: –Competition & conflict emerges as a result; –West controls 85% all Lands by 1914; Industrialization accelerates & expands: –Impact: advanced technology in West; Weapons technology increases West’s killing power; War now more dangerous & lethal; Central government’s power grew dramatically: –Control over $$$ resources & population; –Able to direct state’s resources to military & war

3 3 Impact of Late 19 th Century Advances Effect of advances & changes influenced & shaped: –West’s military tactics, techniques, concepts, & methods –Organization & equipment for control & support –Weapons advances: rifles, machine guns, artillery: Greater increase range, accuracy, rate of fire For artillery: accurate plunging fire (back side of hills) Weapons now wore lethal, efficient, & effective in war For Navy: Dreadnought superseded older Battleships: –Impact: Shaped western International Affairs & National Security Strategy – Western nations’ FP became more aggressive (Asia, Africa, & Caribbean for US)

4 4 New Military & Naval Concepts & Ideas Major impact on models & systems for waging war –Adopt successful military models of recent history Prussian General Staff – successes studied –Austria-Prussian-1866 & Franco-Prussian Wars- 1871 –Planning, Command & Control copied & adapted A.T. Mahan’s theory & impact on Naval Strategy: –West embraces Sea Power & Control of the Seas –Blue Water Navy sought by budding Imperialists –Build Battleships & bases to protect $$$ markets

5 5 Three Regional Conflicts Three Regional Conflicts of the period: –Refuted or verified these changes in methods of war Spanish-American War Boer War Russo-Japanese War Above offered a varied mix of lessons learned –Too often with the wrong lesson drawn- Boer War Weapons technology advances had a significant impact on tactics –Whether or not commanders were alert to them & able to adapt

6 6 New Weapons Technology Impact of Industrial Revolution: –Steam & steel: –More powerful explosives; –Population increases; –Greater destruction & killing power; Impact of various weapons technology advances: –Smokeless powder (visibility & concealment); –Artillery (potential for rapid indirect fire support): High round trajectory Recoil mechanism Breech loading –Tactical impact was mixed

7 7 New Weapons Technology- 2 Machine Guns: –Replaced direct fire artillery support (up front) –Artillery (plunging fire) placed to rear of infantry Rifles: increased range, accuracy, & rate of fire: –Smokeless powder; –Magazine loaders; –Metallic cartridges; Relevant innovations: –Telegraph & field telephone (HQ to front lines) –Command, Control, Communication (C3)

8 8 New Weapons Technology- Details Machine Guns: –Before 1884: required external power source Example=> Gatling gun –Maxim invented a self-powered gun in 1884 Capable of firing 600 rounds per minute –Russians first to employ machine guns during the Russo-Japan War –British Vickers Maxim- more portable at 38 lbs & used WWI & II

9 9 Advances in Rifles Sequence of advances in Rifles: –1871: Mauser invents first metallic cartridge, bolt action –1885: von Mannlicher invents clip loading magazine –1886: French Lebel rifle invented –1893: U.S. Army adopts.30 caliber, 5 shot Krag - Jorgenson rifle Employed during Spanish-American War –1903: U.S. bolt-action Springfield rifle invented & adopted Primary infantry weapon of WWI

10 10 Advances in Artillery Technical & Tactical changes in Artillery (arty): –Firing trajectory became more rounded –Able to fire behind enemy infantry (with tactical implications) –Recoil system develop using hydrostatic buffer & recuperator system => tactical impact? –More accurate sustained fire possible Key examples used in WWI: –Germany’s heavy guns (Fort busters) & on ships –French 75 mm field gun- 1893- light, mobile, rapid fire –Austria-Hungary’s Howitzers

11 11 New Weapons Technology- Details-2 Smokeless Powder: –Invented by Paul Vioillee (1884) –Advantages: more powerful & stable Eliminated telltale smoke (position), cleaner & faster, more even burn Longer range projection of round Related Developments & Advances: –TNT- increased stability & yield of high explosives –Improved Steel- improved design strength for lighter weapons –Telegraph & telephone improved command, control, & communication (C3)

12 12 Prussian General Staff System Impact Prussian victories in 1866 & 71: –Studied extensively throughout Europe & Japan: Prussian model & composition: –Elite general staff (direct peacetime access to Kaiser) –Highly educated & trained professionals (63 to 600+) Prussian model adapted in various ways & degrees: –Great Britain – ambivalent & stuck in British tradition –France- impressed but conflicted in attitude –United States: Traditional American attitudes (No standing pro Army) Congress: concerns toward professional officers –Japan- impressed & adopted Prussian model

13 13 Navies & Naval Theorists Growing global (West & Japan) interest in Navies: –Competition for Empire & Social Darwinism As expressed by Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” –Improved capability in range, speed, & fuel efficiency –British Dreadnought replaced old BBs- now obsolete –Mahan’s theory of Sea Power had major impact Naval Theorists & three contrasting views: –Admiral Aube & Jenue’Ecole – commerce raiding: Guerre de course and the small nation & Fleet (France) –Julian Corbett & Maritime Strategy: The real role of Navies: support the land force & a Nation’s overall grand strategy (Army’s view) –Alfred Thayer Mahan & The Influence of Sea Power:*

14 14 Alfred Thayer Mahan Major impact on Western Europe, Japan, & United States –Analysis of history of sea power throughout ages –Island Nation characteristics & maritime orientation Key purpose of Navy: Command of the Sea: –Ensure friendly commerce & trade of merchant fleet –Deny same benefits to Nation’s enemies Key Tactical Objective of Fleet: –Destroy enemy’s Fleet at sea in battle (Battleships) –Mahan: “Never divide the Fleet.” Professional Navy officer corps attitude on Mahan –More BBs means bigger Navy budget & promotions

15 15 Small Regional Wars – overview Contributing Social Factors – late 19th century: –Social Darwinism applied Darwin’s theory of “Survival of the fittest” to society & Nations=> –New Imperialism (prestige & image of power) –Christian missionaries (convert native peoples) –Economic incentives (trade, markets, raw materials) Contributing Western Technical refinements: –Screw propeller on ships (more efficient & protected) –More efficient steam engines: Less fuel consumption Greater ranges Greater cargo loads –All above allowed West to dominate the “Third World”

16 16 Escalating Competition Result: Competition among Western Powers grows Industrial West easily overcame native resistance through the use of: –Gunboat Diplomacy –Threats & shows of force –Bombardments of port cities –Power projection, intervention, & invasion Main problem main with small wars: –According to Major Caldwell: –Indigenous peoples follow their own rules & not West’s (Guerilla warfare & indigenous insurgencies) –His unheeded advice demonstrated in 3 small wars

17 17 Spanish American War- Prelude America’s control of Western Hemisphere: –Started with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 –Growing US – Spanish tensions in Caribbean –Cuban Revolution in 1895 & negative Spanish PR Two key events influencing American attitudes: –Spanish insult to President McKinley –Remember the Maine! US preparations for war: –Navy mostly ready with 4 new 1st class Battleships –Army totally unprepared: Lack of troops, training, logistics &competent HQ staff Small unit operations experience only No Strategic, Operational, or Tactical Plans

18 18 Spanish American War- Strategy & Tactics Lack of strategic plan & tactical objectives: –Evolving strategic objectives: take Cuba, Philippines, & PR –Ambiguous tactical objectives – plan as you go –Santiago, Cuba evolves as target for the Army

19 19 Spanish American War- Strategic Deployment Navy divides the Fleet –Navy deploys to Cuba & gains “control of the sea” –Traps Spanish Fleet within Santiago General Shafter deploys with Navy to Caribbean –Conducts amphib landing Admiral Dewey deploys to the Philippines –Boldly sails into Manila Bay at night –Destroys Spanish Fleet next morning –Captures Manila & becomes hero

20 20 Naval Strategic & Operational Execution Admirals Sampson & Schley deploy as ordered off Cuba –Schley blocked Adm Cervera’s Fleet within Santiago harbor –But Spanish guns blocked any further advance into the harbor What must happen first before the Navy can proceed to finish its mission? ?______________________*

21 21 Army Operational & Tactical Execution US Army was tasked to take out guns blocking harbor General Shafter landed at Daiquiri (later at Siboney) Tactical objectives: –El Caney on RF (Fortified=> US severely repulsed & stalled) –Kettle Hill & San Juan Hill (Concentrated Arty finally succeeds) –But Shafter’s troops had stalled & want to await reinforcement

22 22 Naval Tactical Execution Fortunately for USN, Spain orders Cervera’s Fleet to break out –He complies with what is essentially a suicide mission Como Schley attacks as Spanish attempt to flee; sink several ships

23 23 Spanish American War- Results Costly tactical “victory” – Especially for the Army –Future President becomes a hero –With a little help from the Buffalo soldiers Operational & strategic victory: –Cuba & Puerto Rico put under US control –Spain ejected from Western Hemisphere for good –Downside: Philippines evolved into long term occupation and bloody insurgency American motives questioned as a result Lessons Learned: –Numerous US tactical planning & logistics shortfalls identified (also generalship) –Good defense appeared to trump offense

24 24 The Second Boer War (1899-1902) Overview: –Bloody & costly war between Britain & Boers Conventional Phase: –British finally able to dominate but Boers would not give up –Excellent marksmen with modern rifles who refused to play by conventional rules or tactics

25 25 The Second Boer War (1899-1902) Guerrilla War Phase: –Boers waged effective GW –Conducted hit & run ambush against small separated Brit units –“Block Houses” were built along main railroad lines to protect them Meanwhile Lord Kitchener employed harsh tactics to deal with the guerrillas & their supporters (families) –His scorched earth strategy destroyed many farms –Families of guerrillas were placed in concentration camps Over a third imprisoned died

26 26 The Second Boer War - Results British finally repress insurgency –Casualties: 8K British soldiers vs. 4K Boer fighters –Over forty thousand civilians died of disease in camps Significance of the war: –British appreciation for marksmanship of Boers –Tactical innovations: Indirect artillery fire (against positions on reverse slope) Creeping barrage with advancing infantry –Employed as tactic for cover and rushing advance Lessons not Learned: –Failure to incorporate above into future tactics (WWI) –Boer War considered unique & not relevant by generals Russo-Japanese War seen as more likely (Euro mil. observers)

27 27 Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) Origin of war: –Struggle for control of Port Arthur & Manchuria –Japan feels threatened when Russians occupy Manchuria –Russia starts RR construction to Port Arthur Japan launches surprise attack on Russia Far East Fleet at Port Arthur –Follow up w/invasion force of four armies (shown by white arrows)

28 28 Russo-Japanese War- Significance Japan’s determination displayed at Mukden: –Flanking & frontal assaults –Wave upon human wave against well entrenched defenders Role of Prussian System & Japan’s Sea Power & (Togo’s victory at Tsushima) Significance- War demonstrated complexities of: –Strategic & tactical surprise Surprise attack on Russian Fleet at Port Arthur caught Russia off guard –Complex Command, control, & employment of large armies –*Tactical impact of modern weapons used in defense against offense: Machine gun & effective indirect fire –Costly but effective frontal and f flank assaults by waves of Japanese troops (with tragic implications for WWI)

29 29 Russo-Japanese War’s Impact Japan demonstrated superior operations & tactics –Especially at sea: faster, modern battleships, superior gunnery, & better trained & motivated seaman Geo-Political & Strategic impact: –Japan gained parts of Manchuria & Sakhalin’s lower half –Eastern Power had defeated Western Power for first time: –Great prestige was gained by Japan on the world stage –Russia descended into 1905 Revolution Wrong lesson learned: –Élan can overcome strong defense armed with machine guns & artillery

30 30 Assessment Dramatic change in war’s conduct between 1871-1914: –New weapons & advanced technologies –New techniques & tactics –Command & HQ staff advancements: Command, control, & communications improved Strategic & logistical planning improved; –Prussian system analyzed & selectively adapted By Japan, France, Britain, & United States Tactics employed during Russo-Japanese War –Indication of how future wars would be fought (WWI)

31 31 Assessment- 2 Major changes linked to societal changes: –Central government control & exploitation of: Industrial Revolution; –Technological advances & R&D & weapons & equipment innovations Population increase and its control & direction; Politics to support national goals (Nationalism & propaganda) Management & use of $$$ resources (mobilization for war) Reforms & application of lessons learned mixed: –Small wars provided new ideas & tactics to consider –Still wrong lessons drawn from last war fought: Offense considered superior to Defense => World War I Morale (élan) over entrenched machine guns & arty?!!

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