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Cyanides  HCN; KCN; NaCN  Solid or vapors  Extremely toxic: arrest of intracellular breathing –KCN lethal dose 0,15 – 0,60 g (dose may depend on „freshness“)

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Presentation on theme: "Cyanides  HCN; KCN; NaCN  Solid or vapors  Extremely toxic: arrest of intracellular breathing –KCN lethal dose 0,15 – 0,60 g (dose may depend on „freshness“)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cyanides  HCN; KCN; NaCN  Solid or vapors  Extremely toxic: arrest of intracellular breathing –KCN lethal dose 0,15 – 0,60 g (dose may depend on „freshness“)  Industry; Nature (some plants – manioc; yam; kernels of some fruits)  Ways of application: vapors (HCN); ingestion (KCN)  Symptoms of intoxication: –Big dose: death within few seconds –Small dose: burning and bitter taste in mouth; vomiting; difficult breathing; cramps, spasms; signs of cardiac failure; unconsciousness; death  Autopsy findings: –Brightly red lividities –Typical smell of bitter almonds –General signs of suffocation –Lesions of gastric mucosa: KCN+H 2 O=KOH+HCN  Medico legal implications: accident; suicide; homicide

2 Methanol  CH 3 OH; liquid; typical aromatic smell of an alcohol  Extremely toxic  Lethal dose: 30-100 g  Ways of application: vapors, ingestion  Symptoms of intoxication: –Sniffing up: difficult speaking (whisper); pain in the throat; tinnitus; difficult breathing; disorders of consciousness;  Medico-legal implications: –Accident –Suicide –Homicide

3 Nitrites  Nitric gases: –Lethal dose about 0,4 g/l –Main symptoms: breathing disorders, pulmonary oedema,expectoration og haemorhagic sputum  Solid compounds – anorganic or organic origin –Amylnitrite; nitrobenzene; nitrogylcerine –Lethal dose: quite high, different, may be 4-15 g –Symptoms of intoxication:  general: difficulties in breathing, disorders of consciousness; perspiration; signs of suffocation  Autopsy findings: –Typical blue-gray lividities; methaemoglobinemia

4 Thalium  Metallic chemical element  Different chemical compounds: fluorides, sulfites, chlorides,iodides –Mainly used in industry –Rat poison and ant killer  Lethal dose: about 2 g  Ways of application: ingestion  Symptoms of intoxication: –Vomiting; cramps; unrest; diarrhea then constipation; renal failure  Autopsy findings: –Not characteristic  Medico-legal implication: –Accidents; it was abused for induction of abortion

5 Arsenic  As; metalloid chemical element  Inorganic and organic compounds  Used in industry in wood preservation; obsolete medicament (neoslavarsan)  Lethal dose: reduced (As (III) and oxidized (As (V) forms –About 0,15-0,30 g –Affect intracellular breathing, man enzymatic pathways  Ways of application: ingestion  Symptoms of intoxication: –Gastrointestinal form (acute)  Scrape in mouth, vomiting – later haemorhagic, diarrhea – signs of dehydratation; renal failure –Nerve form (chronic)  Metallic taste in mouth, nausea, diarrhae×constipation  Inflammatory changes on mucosa: stomatitis, skin pigmentation  Neurological disorders  Autopsy findings: –Gastrointestinal, liver and kidneys damage

6 Nicotine  Alkaloid present in plants form Solanacae family – tobacco  Most wide-spread abused drug  Content in tobacco is about 0,3-6 %  Lethal dose: 0,01-0,05 g (extract from one cigarette may lethal)  Symptoms of intoxication: –Activate sympathetic nervous system: salivation, nausea, vomiting –CNS: irritation  Ways of application: –Smoking –Chewing × ingestion  Autopsy findings: –Not characteristic, typical smell of tobacco from organs; signs of burning on mucosa  Medico-legal implication: –Accident –Suicide –Homicide

7 Barbiturates  Organic substance  Large family of medicaments  Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting,  Symptoms of intoxication –respiratory depression, lowered blood pressure, fatigue, fever, unusual excitement, irritability, dizziness, poor concentration, sedation, confusion, impaired coordination, impaired judgment, addiction, and respiratory arrest which may lead to death  Lethal dose: different, quite high  Autopsy findings: –Not characteristic, general signs of suffocation, hyperemia, brain edema  Medico-legal implication: –Accident; –Suicides –homicide

8 Warfare agents  Blood agents –Cyanogen chloride –Hydrogen cyanide  Blister agents –Lewisite –Mustard gas  Nerve agents: organophosphates blocking acetylcholinesterase –Tabun –Sarin –Soman –Syclosarin  Novichok agents  Pulmonary agents: –Chlorine –Chloropicrine –Phosgene –Diphosgen  Incapacitating agents: –Agent 15 –EA: is a glycolate anticholinergic compound related to atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and other deliriants. –Kolokol-1: opiate-derived  Riot control agents –Pepper spray –CSgas

9 Strychnine  Alkaloid present in seeds from Strychnos nux vomica (Strychnine tree)  Used as pesticide and rodenticide –before in medicine as stimulant  Extremely toxic: 0,03 – 0,05 g  Ways of application: –Ingestion  Symptoms of intoxication: –Unrest, dizziness, anxiety, –Feelings of suffocation –Convulsions, thirst but drinking is not possible –Death may occur immediately, but after a couple of days as well  Autopsy findings: –Not typical, except rigor mortis which is lasting longer then usually  Medico-legal implications: –Accident –Suicide –Homicide: before, but not suitable because of extreme bitter taste

10 Insecticides  1 Classes of agricultural insecticides 1.1 Organochlorine compounds 1.1 Organochlorine compounds 1.2 Organophosphates 1.2 Organophosphates 1.3 Pyrethroids 1.3 Pyrethroids 1.4 Neonicotinoids 1.4 Neonicotinoids 1.5 Biological insecticides 1.5 Biological insecticides

11 Mushrooms intoxication  Primary intoxication by mushrooms –Amanita - contains phalotoxins and amatoxins –Symptoms of intoxication:  CNS - hallucinations  Gastrointestinal  Hepatic failure –Lethal dose:  About one half of cap may be lethal  Secondary intoxication: –Bacterial contamination of non-toxic mushrooms prepared as food

12 Opium  Opium is mixture of alkaloids present in sap of immature seed pops of Papaver somniferum  Composition: –Morphine, narkoitn, papaverine, codeine, thebain  Most commonly abused drug  Derivatives: heroin  Ways of application: –Ingestion –Smoking  Symptoms of intoxication: –CNS  Autopsy findings: –Not characteristic, pinky red lividities, general signs of suffocations, aspiration of gastric content  Medico-legal implication: –Accident –Suicide –Homicide


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