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Cyanides HCN; KCN; NaCN Solid or vapors

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Presentation on theme: "Cyanides HCN; KCN; NaCN Solid or vapors"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cyanides HCN; KCN; NaCN Solid or vapors
Extremely toxic: arrest of intracellular breathing KCN lethal dose 0,15 – 0,60 g (dose may depend on „freshness“) Industry; Nature (some plants – manioc; yam; kernels of some fruits) Ways of application: vapors (HCN); ingestion (KCN) Symptoms of intoxication: Big dose: death within few seconds Small dose: burning and bitter taste in mouth; vomiting; difficult breathing; cramps, spasms; signs of cardiac failure; unconsciousness; death Autopsy findings: Brightly red lividities Typical smell of bitter almonds General signs of suffocation Lesions of gastric mucosa: KCN+H2O=KOH+HCN Medico legal implications: accident; suicide; homicide

2 Methanol CH3OH; liquid; typical aromatic smell of an alcohol
Extremely toxic Lethal dose: g Ways of application: vapors, ingestion Symptoms of intoxication: Sniffing up: difficult speaking (whisper); pain in the throat; tinnitus; difficult breathing; disorders of consciousness; Medico-legal implications: Accident Suicide Homicide

3 Nitrites Nitric gases: Solid compounds – anorganic or organic origin
Lethal dose about 0,4 g/l Main symptoms: breathing disorders, pulmonary oedema,expectoration og haemorhagic sputum Solid compounds – anorganic or organic origin Amylnitrite; nitrobenzene; nitrogylcerine Lethal dose: quite high, different, may be 4-15 g Symptoms of intoxication: general: difficulties in breathing, disorders of consciousness; perspiration; signs of suffocation Autopsy findings: Typical blue-gray lividities; methaemoglobinemia

4 Thalium Metallic chemical element
Different chemical compounds: fluorides, sulfites, chlorides,iodides Mainly used in industry Rat poison and ant killer Lethal dose: about 2 g Ways of application: ingestion Symptoms of intoxication: Vomiting; cramps; unrest; diarrhea then constipation; renal failure Autopsy findings: Not characteristic Medico-legal implication: Accidents; it was abused for induction of abortion

5 Arsenic As; metalloid chemical element Inorganic and organic compounds
Used in industry in wood preservation; obsolete medicament (neoslavarsan) Lethal dose: reduced (As (III) and oxidized (As (V) forms About 0,15-0,30 g Affect intracellular breathing, man enzymatic pathways Ways of application: ingestion Symptoms of intoxication: Gastrointestinal form (acute) Scrape in mouth, vomiting – later haemorhagic, diarrhea – signs of dehydratation; renal failure Nerve form (chronic) Metallic taste in mouth, nausea, diarrhae×constipation Inflammatory changes on mucosa: stomatitis, skin pigmentation Neurological disorders Autopsy findings: Gastrointestinal, liver and kidneys damage

6 Nicotine Alkaloid present in plants form Solanacae family – tobacco
Most wide-spread abused drug Content in tobacco is about 0,3-6 % Lethal dose: 0,01-0,05 g (extract from one cigarette may lethal) Symptoms of intoxication: Activate sympathetic nervous system: salivation, nausea, vomiting CNS: irritation Ways of application: Smoking Chewing × ingestion Autopsy findings: Not characteristic, typical smell of tobacco from organs; signs of burning on mucosa Medico-legal implication: Accident Suicide Homicide

7 Barbiturates Organic substance Large family of medicaments
Barbiturates are classified as ultrashort-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting, Symptoms of intoxication respiratory depression, lowered blood pressure, fatigue, fever, unusual excitement, irritability, dizziness, poor concentration, sedation, confusion, impaired coordination, impaired judgment, addiction, and respiratory arrest which may lead to death Lethal dose: different, quite high Autopsy findings: Not characteristic, general signs of suffocation, hyperemia, brain edema Medico-legal implication: Accident; Suicides homicide

8 Warfare agents Blood agents Cyanogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide
Blister agents Lewisite Mustard gas Nerve agents: organophosphates blocking acetylcholinesterase Tabun Sarin Soman Syclosarin Novichok agents Pulmonary agents: Chlorine Chloropicrine Phosgene Diphosgen Incapacitating agents: Agent 15 EA: is a glycolate anticholinergic compound related to atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and other deliriants. Kolokol-1: opiate-derived Riot control agents Pepper spray CSgas

9 Strychnine Alkaloid present in seeds from Strychnos nux vomica (Strychnine tree) Used as pesticide and rodenticide before in medicine as stimulant Extremely toxic: 0,03 – 0,05 g Ways of application: Ingestion Symptoms of intoxication: Unrest, dizziness, anxiety, Feelings of suffocation Convulsions, thirst but drinking is not possible Death may occur immediately, but after a couple of days as well Autopsy findings: Not typical, except rigor mortis which is lasting longer then usually Medico-legal implications: Accident Suicide Homicide: before, but not suitable because of extreme bitter taste

10 Insecticides 1 Classes of agricultural insecticides
1.1 Organochlorine compounds 1.2 Organophosphates 1.3 Pyrethroids 1.4 Neonicotinoids 1.5 Biological insecticides

11 Mushrooms intoxication
Primary intoxication by mushrooms Amanita - contains phalotoxins and amatoxins Symptoms of intoxication: CNS - hallucinations Gastrointestinal Hepatic failure Lethal dose: About one half of cap may be lethal Secondary intoxication: Bacterial contamination of non-toxic mushrooms prepared as food

12 Opium Opium is mixture of alkaloids present in sap of immature seed pops of Papaver somniferum Composition: Morphine, narkoitn, papaverine, codeine, thebain Most commonly abused drug Derivatives: heroin Ways of application: Ingestion Smoking Symptoms of intoxication: CNS Autopsy findings: Not characteristic, pinky red lividities, general signs of suffocations, aspiration of gastric content Medico-legal implication: Accident Suicide Homicide

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