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The Marine Corps Research University

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1 The Marine Corps Research University
Non-Lethal Weapons: Technologies, Concepts and Strategies A Course of Instruction at the Military War Colleges Presented by: LtCol Ron Madrid, USMC (Ret) Associate Director and Program Manager Marine Corps Research University, Penn State

2 Outline Course Genesis Course Composition Venues Student Scenarios

3 Course Genesis The course was created in 1998 after the formation of the Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies at Penn State. The course was created and is taught by Penn State and offered for presentation at various DoD military colleges. The purpose of the course is to expose field commanders and staff officers to the capabilities and limitations of non-lethal weapons across the spectrum of conflict. 3/15/05

4 Course Composition The course is hours of instruction depending on the academic venue. It is composed of both classified and unclassified lectures by subject matter experts and is currently only open to U.S. students. DoD and industry subject matter experts provide lectures on non-lethal technologies and/or the implications of their use. 3/15/05

5 Course Overview The course covers:
the history of the non-lethal weapons program current military uses of NL weapons threat non-lethal weapons current/future DoD non-lethal weapons programs the status of non-lethal technology development 3/15/05

6 Course Overview The course also covers the implications of non-lethal weapons use. political implications rules of engagement public perception – awareness ethical considerations legal implications impact on policy, strategy and doctrine support to Homeland Defense 3/15/05

7 Resources Future War: Non-Lethal Weapons in 21st Century Warfare by Col John Alexander, USA (Ret) Studies and Assessments of Non-Lethal Technologies by Independent Research Organizations Military Journal Papers Press Articles 3/15/05

8 Non-Lethal Course Venues
National Defense University First non-lethal class conducted in 1999. Two classes held in 2004. Total of 48 students have taken the course. 3/15/05

9 Non-Lethal Course Venues
Marine Corps Command & Staff College Five courses conducted since 2000. Total of 74 students have taken the course. 3/15/05

10 Non-Lethal Course Venues
Army War College First course conducted in 2004. Total of 22 students have taken the course. 3/15/05

11 2005-2006 Non-Lethal Course Venues
April – June 2005 April – June 2006 Sept – Nov 2005 Jan – Mar 2006 AY 2005 – 2006 Aug – Oct 2005 Spring 2006 Marine Corps Command & Staff College 3/15/05

12 2005-2006 Venues In-Work Command & General Staff College
AY 2005 – 2006 AY Command & General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 3/15/05

13 Students Majors/LtCdrs – LtCol/CDR - Colonel/Captain
Representation from all combat and supporting arms. GS-14/GS-15s from OSD and the military services. 90% of the students start the course as skeptics. 99% of the students leave the course as advocates. 3/15/05

14 Student Non-Lethal Scenarios
Course final exam. Student teams are tasked to develop a scenario based on historical, current or future events. Scenario must integrate non-lethal technologies and show how their use would impact mission accomplishment. Student teams present their scenarios to a flag level panel of subject matter experts from the military and federal/state agencies. 3/15/05

15 Student Non-Lethal Scenarios
1975 Evacuation of Saigon Embassy Maritime Interdiction Piracy in SE Asia Enforcing UN Sanctions Against Iraq Embassy Protection – Crowd Control South America Middle East Humanitarian Operations LZ Protection – Food Distribution Point Earthquake Relief 3/15/05

16 Student Non-Lethal Scenarios
Humanitarian Operations Convoy Protection Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations I MEF Security of Iraqi Elections 2001 Presidential Inauguration Port Security Long Beach San Francisco Athens Olympics USS Cole 3/15/05

17 Student Non-Lethal Scenarios
Special Operation Forces – Snatch/Grab in Afghanistan Aircraft Hijacking 1985 TWA Flt 847 Prevention Hostages 29 May 04 takeover of Saudi Arabian housing compound 1970 Kent State 1863 New York Draft Riots Vehicle Checkpoint Humanitarian Operations An Najaf, April 2003 3/15/05

18 NON-LETHAL WEAPONS Col Bill Wetzelberger, USMC
The Division attacked over 600 Kilometers and at one point controlled a battle space that extended 16,000 Km. The Division’s leadership had to determine the most effective technique to train, C2, and Supply units over extended distances. The current MTOE does not entirely support an extended battle space, thus the Division had to make some hard decisions on the best way to equip and man combat units and CSS units and C2 Nodes. Col Bill Wetzelberger, USMC COL Charles Tennison, USA LTC Steph Twitty, USA LtCol Mike Belding, USMC TASK FORCE 3-15 INFANTRY CIVILIAN VAN INCIDENT ALONG HIGHWAY 9, AN NAJAF 3/15/05

19 Task Force 3-15 Infantry located in blocking positions along HWY 9
SCENARIO Task Force 3-15 Infantry located in blocking positions along HWY 9 vicinity of An Najaf in order to prevent enemy forces from flanking Task Force 4-64 AR from the north. Heavy fighting along HWY 9 between TF 3-15 IN and Iraqi soldiers in civilian cars / technical trucks Two US Soldiers killed the day prior by suicide bomber at a checkpoint Guidance to company commander: - Three blocking positions established with B/3-15 IN. - Prevent enemy forces from using HWY 9 to envelope main effort - Establish three-tier check point with concertina wire and Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFV) Fire Warning shot over Car hood/ 2nd shot radiator/3rd to kill 3/15/05

20 Van and car moving SE at approx 80 miles an hour. Both vehicles blow
OBJ LIONS OBJ SAINTS OBJ RAMS OBJ CHATHAM HISTORY OF INCIDENT OBJ FIREBIRD Van and car moving SE at approx 80 miles an hour. Both vehicles blow thru 1st tier of CP, 2nd tier fires warning shot and radiator shot. 3rd tier fires final shot to kill after vehicles proceed thru concertina wire manned by soldiers

21 Direction of travel of van
WHAT HAPPENED? Direction of travel of van Two Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFV) positioned north and south of the road as 2nd tier CP fire warning and radiator shots to disable van. Van proceeds through Concertina wire strung across road. Two US Soldiers located in dug-in fighting positions along south side of the road attempt to halt van by waving it down. Two BFVs positioned north and south of the road engage to destroy the van. 50 75 Meters 3/15/05

22 NON-LETHAL WEAPONS (Recommended Devices)
To prevent vehicle from breaking through check points - Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device (British version) - Caltrops / Road Spikes - Portable Barriers / Portable Vehicle Arresting Barrier Provides protection against suicide bombers Can be used to slow, block, or maze vehicles - Hasco / Jersey Barriers Long Range Acoustic Device: - Notify civilians of obstacles and to halt vehicle “Adversaries will also seek to shape conditions to their advantage. They will try to change the nature of the conflict or use capabilities that they believe difficult for U.S. forces to counter. They will use complex terrain, urban environments, and force dispersal methods to offset U.S. advantages.” FM 3.0 Operations In an attempt to create disadvantages for attacking United States (U.S.) forces, the Iraqis used urban environments extensively throughout their battlespace. Due to the threat of attack by coalition air and U.S. Army attack helicopters, the concept of open desert maneuver with heavy armored forces was practically abandoned as a form of defensive operations by the Iraqi military. To counter this concentration of heavy forces in urban terrain, U.S. forces used heavy mechanized forces to project combat power at decisive points in order to break urban defense structures. Through the introduction of U.S. mechanized forces in urban areas in the form of raids and blocking positions, Iraqi defensive efforts were isolated or neutralized to the point they became combat ineffective. These successes were contributed mostly to the shock effect created by employing heavy firepower at decisive points. OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVEL IMPACT: WINS HEARTS AND MINDS OF THE IRAQI PEOPLE PREVENT WORLD OUTCRY / MEDIA ATTENTION 3/15/05

23 Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device
Description Road spikes in mesh blanket Entangles wheels/axles Advantages Small / light weight Portable / rapidly deployable Reusable / low cost Easier to handle than caltrops Disadvantages Loss of control of vehicle (swerving to avoid blanket) Time to detangle -- Unavailable for immediate follow-up attack 3/15/05

24 Caltrops “Scatterjacks” Description
4-prong iron spike (deflates tires) Always lands in upright position when scattered Hollow--can puncture self-sealing tires Advantages Small / Light weight Rapidly Deployable Reusable / Low Cost Disadvantages Laceration risk (to handler) Time / distance to stop vehicle Loss of control of vehicle (particularly if only one tire is blown) Vehicle may crash into some other barrier, injure pedestrians/occupants Need a large quantity to cover wide area “Scatterjacks” Caltrops: A scaled-down version of caltrops used to stop horses during medieval times, this device was also effective in harassing modern-day enemies. When scattered on roads and runways, the non-reflective caltrops would always land with one of the four spikes in an upright position, disrupting vehicular movement. This particular spike is hollow and can puncture a self-sealing rubber tire. Scatterjacks: tire-destructive elements mounted within a spherical container. They are dispersed from an aircraft via a carrier pod over a designated target. When in free flight, an aerofoil controls the descent trajectory and speed. On contact with the ground, the scatter-jack bounces into the air, during which time it becomes armed. This type of vehicle-arresting device is used principally in areas of heavy vehicle concentration on battlefields. 3/15/05

25 Road Spikes Description
Flexible or rigid rows of spikes (deflates tires) Can also place under a vehicle being searched Advantages Small / light weight Portable / rapidly deployable Reusable / low cost Easier to handle than caltrops Disadvantages Stability during successive attacks Time / distance to stop vehicle Loss of control of vehicle (swerving to avoid spike) Vehicle may crash into another barrier, injure pedestrians/occupants MagnumSpike LazyTongs Stop Stick: the latest equipment used to pop the tires of fleeing vehicles. Officers can also use the more traditional spike mat. Both are thrown in front of speeding cars to blow out their wheels, but officers must stay nearby to remove the device from the road. Standing close while a car flies by at high speeds is an increasingly dangerous proposition. MagnumSpike: The state-of-the-art portable MagnumSpike system is the only one on the market to consistently stop vehicles equipped with the new self-sealing and run flat tires. A test of tire deflation devices by the National Institute of Justice showed that the MagnumSpike is prepared for the tire technology of tomorrow, stopping all vehicles equipped with self-sealing and run-flat tires. Lazy tongs portable road barrier: The design is based on the concept of an expanding and contracting lattice onto which 170 spikes are pinch-fitted into cups. The unit can be deployed from a launch/carrying box by two men in 15 seconds, with ropes to secure the lattice at each end. The no-miss configuration of the lattice ensures that a vehicle running over the barrier has its tyres impaled by the spikes. Consolidation into a tyre is effected by the successive revolutions of the vehicle wheel. When the spike reaches the air under pressure in the tyre, it is released to the atmosphere through the hollow section of the spike, deflating the tyres in a controlled manner. This ensures that occupants are unharmed and available for apprehension. A single-arm version provides greater control over a wide road area that means it is suited for use at border control and military check points. Future Trends: Future development in the area of portable road barriers will centre on providing greater stability to the lattice array during successive attacks by a number of vehicles. This will be achieved by using the weight of the vehicle to fix road impingers on the underside of the lattice into the road surface, preventing lattice migration after contact with the vehicle. 3/15/05

26 Portable Barriers / Jersey Barriers
Description Manual / automatic pop-up road blocks Advantages Stopping Power Remote control activation Selective targeting Disadvantages Generally permanent Expensive Requires dedicated prime mover Description Concrete/Plastic road blocks Used to stop (or slow) vehicle Advantages Stopping power Can be filled with water, sand, or other materials Reusable – relatively low cost Disadvantages Heavy - difficult to move Target indiscriminate Road Blockers: are designed to rise above the surface of a road and physically prevent the passage of vehicles. They rise and fall from an underground installation, usually by hydraulic means. In their simplest form, heavy-duty bollards are linked together to rise above the road and prevent passage to a vehicle. A more sophisticated form is purpose-built to span a section of road. This device rises up to one metre above the road surface and physically prevents access to any vehicle. Its sheer bulk and appearance acts as a visual deterrent to would-be intruders. Auto Bollard: EasiGard is an electromechanically operated retractable bollard for both security and traffic control applications. The heavy duty construction offers exceptional robustness, making it ideal for anti ram-raid protection, high security and vandal resistant sites. The bollard rise and lower time is 6 seconds and up to four bollards can be run from one control card simultaneously without affecting speed or performance. A full manual over-ride facility is included which allows the bollard to be both raised and lowered with the appropriate security key. Removable Barrier Hoops: These hoops can be completely removed allowing quick access or can be lifted at one side acting as a gate. Future Trends: underground vehicle barriers will include delayed-action destructive elements. These are designed to complete vehicle under-section destruction at a defined distance past the barrier, causing the vehicle to come to a standstill in a predetermined area. This prevents damage to the barrier on impact and ensures it remains operational for use against subsequent attacks RisingKerbs 3/15/05

27 Portable Vehicle Arresting Barrier
Description Highly effective vehicle stopping “net” Advantages Stopping Power Allows normal traffic flow Selective targeting Disadvantages Time to set up Not easily transported Portable Vehicle Arresting Barrier (PVAB): PVAB is lightweight, portable, easily emplaced and recoverable. System can be unpacked/set-up for use with a two man team in less than two hours. Allows normal traffic flow. Telescoping erectors raise net from the speed bump to a height of 4 feet. System can be reset to standby mode in less than 20 minutes. Upon command, if approaching vehicle fails to stop, checkpoint guard activates the system to capture mode with a remote control pendant from a maximum distance of 300 feet (or 1,000 ft. with WD-1 Como wire). Capture net raises to full height in less than 2 seconds. Capture net wraps around vehicle, and capture lines are tightened by vehicle motion. Brake line payout provides a controlled braking force. Brake box applies increasing brake force as brake lines are pulled out. Rear capture line wraps around rear axle to help stop vehicle. Rope ratchets in capture net keep net tight, preventing vehicle from escaping after capture. Occupants inhibited from opening doors, impeding escape. 3/15/05

28 High Intensity Directional Acoustics
Modes of operation: Broadcast sound files for warnings High pitched, 150 decibel, narrow-beam tone for crowd control Easily transportable and employable Requires energy source (generator) Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) Limited fielding in Iraq Dubbed "The Sound of Force Protection" in a company brochure, the devices can broadcast sound files containing warning messages. Or they can be used with electronic translating devices for what amounts to "narrowcasting." If crowds or potential foes don't respond to the verbal messages, the sonic weapon, which measures 33 inches in diameter, can direct a high-pitched, piercing tone with a tight beam. Neither the LRAD's operators or others in the immediate area are affected. It can be as loud as about 150 decibels. 3/15/05

29 Technologies Assessment
Selective Targeting Effect on Target * Portability Range Cleanup Maturity Synergy Cost Robustness Legal Caltrops Road Spikes Jersey Barriers Portable Barriers Portable Vehicle Arresting Barrier Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device High Intensity Directional Acoustics ` When target confined to limited area ** All need to be backed up with lethal force = Favorable = Unknown = Problematic 3/15/05

Direction of travel of van Vehicle Arresting Device Portable barrier CALTROPS Road Spikes To stop vehicle Two Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFV) positioned north and south sides of the road as 2nd tier. Hasco Barriers Jersey Barriers to slow vehicles Vehicle Arresting Device CALTROPS To stop vehicles Long Range Acoustic Device to notify van to halt Hasco Barriers Jersey Barriers to slow vehicles Two BFVs Positioned north and south sides of the road as 3rd tier. 50 75 Meters 3/15/05

Intel: When fighting in vicinity of non combatant civilians, non lethal weapons should be considered Civilian actions must be war-gamed as part of the overall ground plan HWY 9 was the only major highway in vicinity of AN Najaf. Logistics: Consider impact on load plan and availability of transportation Must have a plan to transport desired non-lethal weapons in theater - limited transportation assets at battalion level Legal: ROE Public Acceptance: Must be ready to explain your actions to civilians Maintain public support by reducing civilian casualties 3/15/05

32 Summary The non-lethal course has been very well received by the students. The course has been a means to expose the future leaders of DoD on the advantages and limitations of non-lethal technologies. The student scenarios have provided a forum between today’s federal and state agencies to discuss non-lethal technologies within an academic environment. 3/15/05

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